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Paul Binski: The Coronation of the Virgin on the Hastings Brass at Elsing, Norfolk.
Examines the role of the image of St George – a fashionable Windsor-based cult. Discusses other 14C tombs with Marian imagery. The brass’s images are all derived from Continental models. Examines particularly the Coronation of BVM images which use perspective otherwise absent on rest of brass. Suggests connection with paintings of Jean Pucelle active in Paris in 1320s. Shows Pucellian originals influencing style in other media.
A.V.B.Norman: Two Early Fourteenth Century Military Effigies.
Discusses military brasses at Stoke D’Abernon and their revised dating. Describes the armour on the effigy of Sir Henry de Cobham d. c.1316 at Shorne, Kent and Sir Richard de Westcote d. 1333 at Binsted, Hants. Comments on the nature of the armour particularly the coifs worn by these effigies, their sword belts and spurs.
 Adam White: Classical Learning and the Early Stuart Renaissance.
Early 17C memorial sculpture saw introduction of classical learning in design. Pattern of patronage changed, key monument is Elizabeth Russell d. 1600 in Westminster Abbey. Her seated effigy is placed on a copy of a Roman sepulchral altar published in 1602 – probably by Cure workshop of Southwark. Design possibly influenced by her mother Lady Russell who was familiar with recent continental innovations. Also discusses monument to Francis Holles by Nicholas Stone 1624-7 in Westminster Abbey. Traces Inigo Jones monumental work and his influence on Stone. Discusses William Camden’s d. 1623 monument in Westminster Abbey. Suggests Inigo Jones’ classicism not understood by Stone so soon died out.
Tessa Murdoch: Roubiliac's Monuments to Bishop Hough and the Second Duke and Duchess of Montagu. Discusses monument of John Hough, Bishop of Worcester d. 1743 in Worcester Cathedral. Also monument to Duke of Argyll and Greenwich installed in Westminster Abbey in 1749. The monuments of to the Duke and Duchess of Argyll at Warkton, Northants 1753-4 and to the Viscount and Viscountess Shannon at Walton on Thames c.1755 and George Lynn at Southwick, Northants 1759-60 are also considered.
Julius Bryant: The Church Memorials of Thomas Banks. Discusses, among others, monuments to Isaac Watts 1779 at Westminster Abbey, Bishop Newton at St Mary le Bow d.1782, Sir Eyre Coote at Westminster Abbey 1783-9, Anne Martha Hand at St Giles Cripplegate d.1784, Anne Pakenham at Meath, Eire 1791. Suggests Banks saw memorial sculpture as the medium by which he could produce work of gallery quality for which his training in Rome had prepared him.
Anne Brodrick & Josephine Darrah: The Fifteenth Century Polychromed Limestone Effigies of William Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and his wife, Joan Neville, in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel.
Studies the conservation of the effigies of the Earl and Countess of Arundel at Arundel in 1980. V & A analysed the paint of the painted raised wax decoration. Describes the two effigies and the careers of the two subjects. Analyses the polychrome decoration.
John Lord: Patronage and Church Monuments 1660-1794: a Regional Study.
Looks at patronage of monuments in Lincolnshire. Mainly from London workshops.
Ben Stocker: Medieval Grave Markers in Kent.
Examines a group of 66 medieval grave markers in SE Kent.
John Physick & Nigel Ramsey
: Katharine Ada Esdaile 1881-1950. A short account of the work of expert on post Reformation British sculpture with a bibliography of her publications 1904-1956 
A. V. B. Norman: An Unpublished Fourteenth Century Alabaster Fragment .
Discusses the armour and active pose of the remains of an alabaster military effigy at Bingham, Nottinghamshire c1335-50. Comparison is made with the limestone military effigy at Walsall, Staffordshire
Leslie Southwick: The Armoured Effigy of Prince John of Eltham in Westminster Abbey and Some Closely Related Military Monuments.
Discusses armour of effigy. Further discusses effigies at Ifield, Sussex, Waterperry, Oxfordshire, Spilsby, Lincolnshire and brasses at Westley Waterless, Cambridgeshire and Stoke D’Abernon, Surrey which share similarities with the Westminster effigy. Discusses the armour called “a pair of plates”, the cyclas, spurs, gauntlets and sword belts of the Eltham group which dates from around the 1340s.Terry Friedman: Nost at Bothwell.
Discusses Nost’s monument to 2nd Duke of Queensbury at Durisdeer church, Dumfriesshire c.1695-1711 and that of 3rd Duke of Hamilton by James Smith at Bothwell, Lanarkshire 1694-1702. Though Nost’s original design for the Hamilton monument was rejected as too expensive, the author suggests he was responsible for certain features of the completed monument.
Sally F. Badham: Richard Gough and the Flowering of Romantic Antiquarianism.
Gough and his circle were the first to study monuments as works of art. The author examines Gough’s career and work at Society of Antiquaries. Discusses background collaboration with fellow antiquaries in evidence gathering for his Sepulchral monuments which is described and evaluated. Describes divergent views among antiquaries in late 18C and tells of Gough’s disagreement with and departure from Society of Antiquaries in 1797.
John Physick: Royal Monuments in the Nineteenth Century
The tombs of Henry IV and Black Prince at Canterbury were in poor condition in 1844 – Richard Westmacott was asked to investigate - £1600 the estimated cost of restoration. Scott reported on state of Westminster royal effigies – to repair, restore or replace? King John’s effigy at Worcester was gilded – this was later decided to be a mistake. Recounts the arguments at Gloucester between Cathedral architect and Office of Works over quality of work on tomb of Edward II. Gives a history of State payment for repair of monuments prior to Ancient Monuments Act.
John Physick: The Story of a Monument: A Tale of Religious Intolerance
Records the history of a proposed monumental tablet to Canon Henry Riddell Moody d.1873 at Chartham Kent designed by his architect son Francis to complement the Burgey tablet of 1596 in the chancel. The new rector objected to its proposed position and design. He was supported by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The article traces the resulting case through its hearing at Lambeth revealing the underlying proposed Gothic Revival restoration of the chancel. 
Harry Tummers: The Medieval Effigial Tombs in Chichester Cathedral. Reviews the accepted identification of medieval effigies in the cathedral. Uses 17C plan as base. Considers the evidence identifying the tombs of several medieval bishops some of which have been removed from their original locations. Also examines three tombs brought to Chichester from Lewes at the Dissolution and identifies them.
Carol Galvin & Phillip Lindley: Pietro Torrigiano's Tomb for Dr Yonge. Discusses tomb of John Yonge d. 1516 at the Rolls Chapel – the first fully developed Renaissance tomb in England. Probably designed by Pietro Torrigiano, the effigy is of polychromed terracotta. Comparison is made with tomb of HenryVII and Elizabeth of York at Westminster by Torrigiano. Describes the analysis of paint layers on the effigy and reconstructs the original polychromy.
Mark Stocker: The Church Monuments of Joseph Edgar Boehm.
Examines the eclectic church monuments of Queen Victoria’s Sculptor in Ordinary. He produced 57 monuments including Earl of Cardigan 1868-70 at Deene, Northamptonshire commissioned by his widow, Princess Alice 1878-80 at Frogmore, Duchess of Westminster d. 1880 at Eaton Hall which has 15C Renaissance antecedents. More famous because of its location and subject was Boehm’s monument to Arthur Stanley, Dean of Westminster 1882-4. Also examines Howard tombs at Lanercost Priory, Frank Holly 1888-93 at St Paul’s Cathedral and Benjamin Disraeli at Westminster Abbey.
Freda Anderson: Three Westminster Abbots: A Problem of Identity.Gives the conflicting evidence provided by antiquarian sources describing the early tombs of abbots now in the south cloister of Westminster Abbey and identifies them as monuments to Crispin, Gervase and Laurence. Argues for 12C date for all three.
Adam White: Westminster Abbey in the Early Seventeenth Century: A Powerhouse of Ideas. Shows that tombs at Westminster, which showed many stylistic innovations, had become a regular tourist attraction in the early 17C which resulted in their being copied or adapted by those who saw them for regional use. The article traces the influence the Westminster originals had on provincial tomb sculpture.
John Physick
: Westminster Abbey: Designs for Poet's Corner and a New Roubiliac in the Cloister.Notes the early 18C condition of the S transept of the abbey which contained a vestry. Describes two monuments by James Gibbs in Poets Corner and proposed monument by Rysbrack. Identifies a monument in S cloister as by Roubiliac 1748.
Sally F. Badham: London Standardisation and Provincial Idiosyncrasy: The Organisation and Working Practices of Brass-Engraving Workshops in Pre-Reformation England. Much that has been written and said about brasses over the past fifteen years has been concentrated on stylistic analysis. Published work has focused on the identification of the products of individual workshops through analysis of their distinguishing features and on the documentary evidence relating to the craftsmen. However, these studies also provide information about how the monumental brass industry was organised and about the working practices employed, though little has been written specifically on these aspects. This paper attempts to fill the gap by surveying the evidence available to date and comparing and contrasting the practices apparently employed in different parts of the country and at different times.Pamela M. King: The Cadaver Tomb in England: Novel Manifestation of an Old Idea. Cadaver tomb phenomenon was orthodox, even reactionary – novel only in the manner of its plastic expression. Early15C cadaver tombs exceptionally inscrutable. Examines intellectual and philosophical basis of elaborate tombs, funerals and mortality.
Jon Bayliss
: Richard Parker "The Alabasterman". By the beginning of the sixteenth century, Burton-upon-Trent had established itself as the centre of the alabaster tomb industry in England. Although an alabaster tomb could be ordered from a Nottingham workshop as late as c. 1495, work of the first three decades of the sixteenth century in a recognisable Burton style can be found throughout England and Wales. For a talented young sculpture working in Burton in 1530, the future must have looked very bright. Yet, when that same sculptor died in 1570, the Burton tomb industry was left in the hands of incompetents and it was only the arrival of a Netherlandish refugee in the mid-1580's that saved it from extinction in face of a revived challenge from Nottingham. The aim of this paper is to trace the career of Richard Parker from the 1530's to 1570, looking at both his life and work.
Jean L. Wilson
: Holy Innocents: Some Aspects of the Iconography of children on English Renaissance Tombs. Examines the use of the palm to indicate association with Holy Innocents. Also roses and other flowers. Considers infant’s tombs in 16 & 17C.
John Lord
: A Pugilist's Monument: The Parkyns Tomb at Bunney, Nottinghamshire. Discusses monument to Sir Thomas Parkyns (d. 1741) at Bunny, Notts. His monument shows him as a wrestler, his favourite exercise. Suggests Edward Poynton as possibly the sculptor responsible for the overall design and considers other monuments by him
Ilene D. Lieberman
: Sir Francis Chantrey's Early Monuments to Children, and Neoclassical Sensibilities. Looks at monument to Marianne Johnes 1815 formerly at Hafod, Cards, and the Robinson children at Lichfield. Discusses role of Thomas Stothard and influence of Thomas Banks’ Boothby monument at Ashbourne Derby on the Lichfield tomb. Also examines influence of James Northcote’s painting of the murder of the princes in the Tower exhibited 1786.
Claud Blair :The Conington Effigy: Fourteenth Century Knights at Conington, Doddington and Tollard Royal.
Discusses Purbeck marble effigy of knight wearing a Franciscan friar’s habit over mail armour at Conington, Hunts. Discusses the bacinet worn over the coif and its date implications. Also described and discussed are the Purbeck knight at Dodford, Northants c.1344 and the stone knight at Tollard Royal, Wilts. It is suggested that Corfe or Salisbury workshops were the source of these 2 effigies; London is the place of manufacture for the Conington effigy. An appendix by Ron Firman discusses the Purbeck marble industry post 1300. He also discusses the trade in alabaster from Poole and other Southern ports.
Jon Bayliss: Richard and Gabriel Royley of Burton-upon-Trent, Tombmakers. Around 100 monuments survive from the Royley workshop mid 1540s – late 1590s, also incised slabs. Describes and illustrates the surviving work of this rather conservative firm which continued to work in alabaster in the medieval tradition. An appendix lists surviving tombs.
John Physick
: The Sondes Monuments at Throwley, Kent
SE chapel dedicated to Sondes family. Series begins with William d.1474 and ends Lewis Duras d.1709.
Pauline Sheppard Routh
: Elegy in a Country Churchyard: The Dunn Monument at Otley
Churchyard monument to Thomas Dunn d. 1857 at Otley, Yorks featuring recumbent effigy of his widow Carolina. The sculptor was Dennis Lee of Leeds.
Martin D. W. Jones
: Gothic Enriched: Thomas Jackson's Mural Tablets in Brighton College Chapel.
Churchyard monument to Thomas Dunn d. 1857 at Otley, Yorks featuring recumbent effigy of his widow Carolina. The sculptor was Dennis Lee of Leeds.
Richard Knowles
: Tale of an Arabian Knight: the T. E. Lawrence Effigy.
Describes the monumental effigy to T.E. Lawrence at Wareham, Dorset carved by E.H. Kennington. Portland stone 14C style. Illustrated by series of photographs taken during its creation 1936-39.
Claude Blair: The Date of the Early alabaster Knight at Hanbury, Staffordshire. Investigates the alabaster military effigy at Hanbury formerly considered to date from c.1300 and thus the earliest alabaster effigy. Describes armour. Identifies Henry de Hanbury d. c1347 as likely subject. Compares effigy to similar examples in Shropshire, Nottinghamshire & Staffordshire, three of which carry purses. A workshop at Shrewsbury or Lichfield is proposed for them.
Harry Tummers: Medieval Effigial Monuments in the Netherlands. Fifteen surviving medieval tombs. No suitable local stone. Describes effigial tombs and incised slabs 13-16C.
Adam White: England c. 1560 - c. 1660: A Hundred Years of Continental Influence.
Discusses Dormer monument at Wing, Bucks and Hoby tomb at Bisham  and points out French influence on them. Also traces Netherlandish influence. Traces French and Netherlandish influence in monuments by Nicholas Stone. Looks at Italian influence under James I and the availability of published engravings of European monuments. An appendix tables Netherlandish sculptors working in London under Elizabeth I
Ingrid Roscoe
: Flemish Sculptors and Adjustments for the English Market: The Case of Peter Scheemakers.
Examines the effect current English Protestant taste had on immigrant sculptors from the Catholic Low Countries. Both imagery and range of commissions were narrowed in England. Compares the career of Peeter Scheemaeckers of Antwerp and his son Peter who came to England c.1720.
John Lord
: The Building of the Mausoleum at Brocklesby, Lincolnshire Traces history of the classical mausoleum by James Wyatt built 1786-94 to commemorate Sophia Pelham d.1786. Three other monuments in the mausoleum (which were commissioned in Rome in 1769), and the identity of their sculptor, are investigated.
Claude Blair: The de Vere Effigy at Hatfield Broad Oak
Freestone military effigy of Robert de Vere I d.1221.

Discusses the development of  methods of attaching the scabbard to its belt. Suggests date of c.1315 for the monument and relates it to London School effigies at Westminster.
Janet Arnold: The Jupon or Coat-Armour of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral. Describes the jupon – its construction, materials and heraldry. Compares it to contemporary garments at Chartres and Lyon and two dimensional images of the 14C.
Philip J. Lankester: Two Lost Effigial Monuments in Yorkshire and the Evidence of Church Notes. Examines evidence for two lost late medieval effigial monuments from church notes by heralds in 16 & 17C. Francis Thynne’s record of a 15C military effigy formerly at Escrick, Yorks, possibly of a Lascelles, and Henry Johnston’s record of an early 15C alabaster knight at South Cave, Yorks. Discusses the existence of additional copies of church notes made by Glover in Yorkshire at his visitation in 1584.
Jon Bayliss
: A Dutch Carver: Garrett Hollemans l in England.
Traces Hollemans’ career, which probably started at Burton-on-Trent. Several Midland tombs are ascribed to him on stylistic grounds. The proximity of sources of alabaster might account for his presence in Burton rather than Southwark to which several other immigrant carvers went.
Jean Wilson
: The Memorial by Nicholas Stone to Sir Thomas Bodley.
Analyses the iconographic programme of the mural memorial in Merton College Oxford and draws attention to similarities found on the tomb of Pope Sixtus IV by Pollaiuolo.
Philip Ward-Jackson
: The French Background of Royal Monuments at Windsor and Frogmore
Traces the influences bearing on the monuments to Prince Albert and Queen Victoria commissioned in 1862. The monuments to members of the Orleans family and their sculptors, who were to work on the Windsor monuments, are discussed.
Brian and Moira Gittos: The Goldsborough Effigies.
Describes two early 14C military effigies detailing their armour and the setting of the two monuments. The genealogy of the Goldesburgh family is investigated and the two effigies identified.
Claude Blair: The Wooden Knight at Abergavenny.
Examines early referencess to effigy. Discusses generally the bacinet worn under mail hood and the poleyns. Confirms identification of John 2nd Baron Hastings d. 1325. Identifies tomb-chest panel in the church as belonging to original memorial and suggests that the monument was in the form of a ciborium. An appendix describes the paint found by conservators.
Pauline Routh:
Yorkshire's Royal Monuments: Prince William of Hatfield.
Discusses the date of the 14C monument and its various locations in York Minster.Adam White: The Booke of Monuments Reconsidered: Maximilian Colt and William Wright.
Discusses the manuscript in the College of Arms which was created to record the approval of heraldic and genealogical information on proposed memorials. William Wright is discovered as the probable designer of the Hertford monument at Salisbury c.1621.
Terry Friedman: Modern Icarus, or the Unfortunate Accident.
Recounts the death of Robert Cadman who fell while performing on a rope stretched from the spire of St Mary’s church, Shrewsbury in 1740.
Ingrid Roscoe: The Monument to the Memory of Shakespeare.
Recounts the raising of funds to commemorate Shakespeare in London through benefit performances. Installed in 1741, the monuments by Peter Scheemakers was popularly received and inspired a Shakespeare revival and the placing of his statue in theatres and other locations. Scheemakers became most popular sculptor overshadowing Rysbrack.
John Lord: Repairing and Cleaning of the Said Burying Places.
Looks at repair of monuments in 17 and 18 C notably the Anderson family tombs at Broughton, Lincs and the Willoughby d’Eresby tombs at Spilsby, Lincs
John Physick: Prime Ministers in Westminster Abbey
 Gives an account of the commissioning and siting of monuments to Disraeli, Gladstone, Salisbury and Campbell-Bannerman paid for by Parliament.
John Blair: The Limoges Enamel Tomb of Bishop Walter de Merton
An account of the tomb of the Bishop of Rochester d.1277 in Rochester Cathedral which originally had an effigy of Limoges enamel.
Mark Downing
: Military Effigies with Breast Chains
An analysis of the eleven surviving 14C military effigies which feature breast chains
Paul D. Cockerham: The Early Treffry Monuments at Fowey: A Reappraisal
Considers three locally produced 16C incised slabs and four 15C brasses to the Treffrys at Fowey and redates them
John Broome: Samuel Baldwin: Carver of Gloucester
Baldwin was active 1603-45. He reworked designs of Southwark immigrants. Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire were the counties where his work is mainly found. The paper reviews his output and lists 59 monuments.Marjorie Trusted: Moving Church Monuments: Processional Images in Spain in the Seventeenth Century
Paso – processional groups of large scale carved sculptures of early 17c Vallodolid by Rincón and Fernández for confraternities. Carried or wheeled through the streets at religious festivals
Jean Wilson
: 'Two names of friendship, but one Starre' Memorials to Single-Sex Couples in the Early Modern Period Examines monument to Fulke Greville d.1628 at Warwick and that to Thomas Baines d.1681 and John Finch d.1684 at Christs College, Cambridge as commemorating homosexual relationships.
Clive Easter
: John Weston of Exeter and the Last Judgement Weston flourished c1700-48.
Looks at his monument to Thomas Northmore d.1713 in St Thomas, Exeter and others at Whitchurch, St Blazey, Ashprington and St Petroc, Exeter featuring depictions of the Last Judgment.
Malcolm Baker
: Roubiliac and Cheere in the 1730's & 40's: Collaboration and Sub-contracting in Eighteenth - Century English Sculptors' Workshops
Examines Roubiliac’s early career as a sculptor associated with the workshops of Thomas Carter and Henry Cheere. Analysis of his early monuments and the circumstances under which they were produced reveals how Roubiliac progressed within the workshops and business practices of notable London statuaries.
Fritz Scholten
: Canova in Delft, the Commission for the Funeral Monument to Willem George Frederick, Prince of Orange (1806) Reconstructed.
Gives history of Canova’s monument to the Prince originally erected in the church of the Eremitani in Padua in 1812. The monument was removed to Delft in 1896
Mary Markus: 'An attempt to Discriminate the Styles' - the sculptors of the Harrington Tomb, Cartmel.
The Harrington tomb, in the south choir aisle of the priory church at Cartmel, is a fascinating mixture of iconographical ideas. At least three separate hands can be identified in the tomb canopy and the effigies of Sir John Harrington, d. c. 1347, and his wife Joan (née Dacre). The tomb marks a culmination, in the north-west of England, of evolving sculptural styles and expertise and expertise, which can be traced through a series of monuments, from the 1320's to c. 1345 including the shrines of St William at York and St Werbergh's shrine at Chester. That the tomb involved this team of at least three sculptors is not surprising considering the large size of the monument and its ambitious sculptural programme. The stylistic sources these sculptors drew upon were both innovative for the north-west of England and indicative of the aspirations of the tomb patrons, who, like other patrons, were trying to reflect their hopes for the after-life in the appearance of their tomb.Amy Louise Harris:
Tombs of the New English in Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth-century Dublin

Jean Wilson
: I Dote on Death: The Fractured Marriage in English Renaissance Art and Literature
Discusses a group of monuments from the first half of the seventeenth century which give expression to the break-up of a marriage, usually by death, and the extent to which some of them incorporated Eros as well as Thanatos, using the vocabulary of sexual love in a context of grief.
Andrew Jezzard: 'An All-round Craftsman.' George Frampton's Church Monuments
Examines Frampton's monuments and memorial plaques 1891-1905 and discovers the effect his distinctive Arts and Craft style had on prevailing neo-classical tastes.
Brian and Moira Gittos with Lawrence Butler:
The Conservation of the Goldsborough Effigies
A few months after the article on the effigies at Goldsborough was published, work began on their conservation. Both monuments were suffering from the effects of damp which had caused damage to the stone. In the case of the figure under the arched recess, this was localised at the north-east corner of the recess and the adjacent rear wall, where both the figure itself and the corner of the integral base slab were deteriorating. The figure on the tomb chest, on the south side of the chancel, did not appear to be affected but the tomb chest itself had already lost a great deal of its surface on the long side, with the stone blistering and flaking. This was of particular concern as it threatened the surviving painted figures in the niches on the side panels, the majority of which had already been lost.The conservation was placed with Harrison Hill and, in the late autumn of 1995 both effigies, part of the plinth of the northern figure and the tomb chest from the south side were taken to their workshop at Brigstock (Northamptonshire) for conservation.  Dr Lawrence Butler of the  Department of Archaeology, York University carried out archaeological recordings during the dismantling and removal. A copy of the interim report appears in Appendix 1. The authors visited the workshop (December 1995)to see the conservation work in progress and Goldsborough church (March 1996) to observe the evidence afforded by the absence of the effigies and tomb chest. The monuments were replaced later that year. The purpose of this paper is to record, and comment upon, the additional information which has become apparent as a result of this work.
John Coales
: The Drawings of Roger de Gagnières: Loss and Survival
The drawings collected together by the French antiquary Roger de Gaignières (1642-1715) deserves to be better known by English scholars. The many drawings now preserved cover French funerary monuments and other objects of antiquarian interest. For us  the significance lies in the fact that they show French medieval monuments, the vast majority of which were destroyed or damaged in the Revolution of the late eighteenth century. The drawings, or copies of them, are now preserved in the collections of the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. They have been published in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in a miniature format which, whilst invaluable as a reference for students of the subject, hardly does them justice nor allows their full detail to be appreciated.
A study of the drawings shows that they are done by a number of hands and that the qu laity varies. Nonetheless they are of great value in determining the appearance of monuments in pre-Revolutionary times and their accuracy and value will be assessed in this paper. It will examine how they came to be collected together and preserved, though the majority were dispersed; what they show; how they were used in the restoration of the French Royal monuments at Saint-Dennis; and the copying of those in the Bodleian Library in the nineteenth century.
As this paper covers events of some two centuries it is of necessity much condensed. Those wishing to study the subject in depth are referred to the bibliography from where much of the information that follows has been obtained. To the best of my knowledge nothing has been published  regarding Gaignières on this side of the Atlantic. This is a brief outline of the history of the drawings and is capable of being explained more fully by further research. 
Willem Bergé
: Sculptors on the Move: Thomas Quellin in Denmark
Thomas Quellin delivered sculpture to the King of Denmark and to many members of the nobility, senior officers and rich merchants. The Czar of Russia even owned work by him. Whilst based in Copenhagen, Quillin might have seen himself as a temporary emigrant, an adequate designation of his status outside his homeland.
Ingrid Roscoe and Kenneth Hempel
: The Refreshment of memory: Joseph Wilton's Byerley Monument, Restored
Alain Jacobs: Joseph Wilton's Nivelles Years and the influence of Laurent Delvaux
John Lord: Richard Hayward: An early and some late Commissions
Describes projected monument to the Massingberd family and the completed Carter-Thelwall memorials at Redbourne, Lincs.
Joan Coutu: Carving Histories: British Sculpture in the West Indies
Discusses the monuments to members of the planter aristocracy erected in the West Indies but commissioned from 'home' in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Louise Boreham: Louis Reid Deuchars - Collaboration with Sir Robert Lorimer Deuchars (1870-1927) supplied sculptural elements for numerous Scottish monuments designed by the architect Lorimer from 1911-17
Brian and Moira Gittos: Irish Purbeck: Recently Identified Purbeck Marble Monuments in Ireland
Since 1994 a survey of Purbeck marble coffin-shaped slabs has been serialised in the Newsletter. Although only English counties have been published to date, the Survey includes slabs wherever they occur and a few are known from the continent. During a visit to Dublin by the authors in March 1998, a check was made of the grave slabs preserved in the crypt of Christ Church Cathedral. One of these was known from previous observations to exhibit features recognisable, from the Survey, as being characteristic of Purbeck marble slabs. In the event, two of the slabs in the crypt were found to be of this material. What was completely unexpected, however, was the discovery, during the same visit, that the .two of the medieval effigies at Christ Church were also Purbeck marble, together with a third figure in St Patrick's Cathedral and an excavated fragment of a fourth from the collection of  the National Museum of Ireland, on exhibition in Dublin.  A further visit, in July 1998, added to this list a civilian effigy at St Audoen's, a third coffin-shaped slab and a coffin (the latter two in the churchyard of St Patrick's). The five Purbeck marble effigies in Dublin are probably the largest concentration outside London
Irish medieval figure sculpture has been the subject of a very thorough study, including some petrological identification, but none has previously been identifies as being carved in this Dorset limestone. In 1970 D M Waterman refuted earlier suggestions by Sir Thomas Drew that Purbeck had been used extensively for shafts at Christ Church, Dublin. More recently, a Purbeck slab with indents for a monumental brass with a separate letter inscription has been noted at trim. On the other hand, it is known that indigenous sources of polishable limestone, eg from quarries in the area of Kilkenny, was used both for architectural elements and monuments. The availability of native alternatives to Purbeck would have reduced the market for an imported stone. Against this background, the recognition of eight medieval monuments and a coffin in Purbeck marble is highly significant in an Irish context and has important consequences for the wider distribution of such products and patterns of trade. This paper puts on record the new evidence and briefly considers the implications.
Portia Askew:
Early Medieval Purbeck Marble Grave Slabs from Southwark
An excavation at 10-18 London Bridge Street was carried out by staff of the Museum of London Archaeological Service in September/October 1997. A sequence of deposits from the Roman to the medieval period was discovered. The latest structure in the excavation was a fifteenth century cellar/cesspit constructed from chalk, flint and sandstone. Within the fabric of the remaining two walls were two  reused Purbeck marble grave slab fragments, one of which was inscribed. Since the recent notification of the find in April's Ecclesiology Today, some changes have been made following further research by the author and comments on the grave slabs by Sally Badham. Publication of the site, including further refinements to the chronology using cartographic and documentary sources is in preparation for the London Archaeologist (P Askew with S Badham & S Humphreys, 'Excavation at 10-18 London Bridge Street' forthcoming.
Both are adult slabs and made from Purbeck marble carved at or near one of the quarries of Corfe in Dorset and marketed locally and through the marblers' workshops in London.
Mark Downing: Lions of the Middle ages: A Preliminary Survey of Lions on Medieval Military Effigies
Examines similarities among lions supporters on English military effigies of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and assigns them to stylistic groups
Paul Cockerham: Sale of French Incised Slab: Argument for its Attribution
A section of  'A French (Normandy or Brittany) stone panel from a tomb - early fifteenth century' was offered for auction by Sotheby's in New York. The sale catalogue description continues, '...carved in low relief with alternating male and female saints, within trefoil pointed arches, a partial inscription in French below, losses and extensive wear, repaired crack, mounted on a later metal stand, 13.25" by 32.375".' Its presale estimate was $10 - 12,000 but reportedly it was sold after the sale for $5,000.
Richard Knowles: French Excursions: Charles Alfred Stothard and the Monumental Effigies of France
Stothard toured France to draw monuments for his projected Monumental Effigies in France in the years 1816-18. Two albums of his unpublished drawings are described. Stothard's journeys and explorations are recalled thought his widow's memoirs and letters.
Amy Louise Harris: The Funerary Monuments of Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork
Describes the four Boyle tombs and interprets the messages relayed by them about Boyle and his family to early seventeenth century society both in England and Ireland.
Jean Wilson: Ethics Girls: The Personification of Moral Systems on Early Modern English Monuments
Analyses the significance of allegorical figures on early seventeenth century monuments which replaced more conventional representations of the Virtues.
Lawrence Butler: The Monuments in Wakefield Cathedral
Obituary: A V B (Nick) Norman, 1930 - 1998
Sally Badham: Medieval Minor Effigial Monuments in West and South Wales: An Interim Survey
Although the sepulchral slabs and effigies of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in north Wales were comprehensively surveyed by Gresham, far less attention has been paid to the equivalent monuments in south Wales. Many of the carved high- relief effigies were described variously by Williams, Allen and Westwood in the late nineteenth century and by Law and Edwards in the early twentieth, but references to minor effigial monuments are relatively few. A thorough survey of brasses of this area revealed only a handful of medieval examples.  Whilst Greenhill compiled a near -complete catalogue of effigial incised slabs in England and Scotland, Wales remained largely unsearched at his death. Exploratory trips in south Wales, mainly by his close friend and collaborator, H A Beetlestone, revealed just four effigial slabs, of which only two had the entire composition incised. Similarly, few semi-effigial relief monuments have been noticed in print other than fleetingly.
Overall, the impression created by the literature is that there was a dearth of minor effigial monuments in this area,but this is far from true. Sample searching of some 120 churches in south-west Wales has revealed many effigies, including some very unusual ones. A topographical catalogue of the medieval minor effigies revealed by this preliminary survey isat the appendix. Each item is numbered for ease of cross-reference with the main text; the location of each item is shown by this number on the distribution map
Harry Sunley
: St Nicholas's Churchyard, Kenilworth, Warwickshire: An Appropriated Monastic Slab.
John Coales: Stothard's French Excursions Revisited: An Amendment.
Richard Knowles: A Further Album of Stothard Drawings.
Christine Faunch: Constructing the Dead: Late XVI and Early XVII Century Effigy Sculpture in Devon.
Jeremy Maule: Thomas Carew's Epitaph for Maria Wentworth at Toddington, Bedfordshire.
Peter D. Sherlock: Academic Commemoration: Monuments at Corpus Christi College, Oxford 1517-1700.
Lynda Borean: John Bushnell in Venice.
Julian Litten: Tombs Fit For Kings: Some Burial Vaults of the English Aristocracy and Landed Gentry of the Period 1650-1850.
Norman Hammond: Outpost of Empire: Church Monuments in Belize
Claude Blair, John Goodall, Philip Lankester: The Winchelsea Tombs Reconsidered
As has been demonstrated several times in Church Monuments, the redating later of the earliest English military brasses has made it necessary to reconsider the dating and identification of a number of stone and wooden military effigies hitherto ascribed to the thirteenth century. Our purpose here is to do this for the three well-known Purbeck marble figures contained in freestone tombs in the wall of the North Chapel of the parish church of St Thomas Becket, Winchealsea, and to further reconsider all the medieval tombs there in the light of the conclusion reached. 
Paula Frosch: Mind Thee to Die: The Beresford Monument at Fenny Bentley
A careful survey of the Beresford Monument and an in-depth comparison with a variety of other shrouded effigies reveals it to be far more than a macabre oddity. Possibilities are raised for a new interpretation of its composition and intent.Sophie Oosterwijk: Chrysoms, Shrouds and Infants: A Question of Terminology
The term 'crysom' has long been used to describe effigies and weepers of swaddled infants on tomb monuments yet the exact meaning of this word has seldom been queried. It is doubtful that these figures portray infants who died before their mothers' churching and who were actually buried in their baptismal clothes, as has often been claimed. Instead they are more likely to represent infants who died in the swaddling stage, i.e. within the first few months of their lives. As such they illustrate a need on the part of parents and siblings to commemorate the brief lives of those children who might otherwise have been ignored by history.
Lawrence Butler
: The Smithson Monument at Stanwick, North Yorkshire
Conservation work on the late seventeenth table tomb of Sir Hugh and Lady Smithson had provided details of the original location and design of the monument. It has also enabled the sculptor to be identified as (William) Stanton of London.
Matthew Craske:
Entombed Like an Egyptian: An Eighteenth Century Surgeon's Extravagant Mausoleum to Preserve his Mortal Remains
This article reviews a series of documents connected with the construction of the pyramid monument to the London surgeon, Francis Douce, which was completed in the late 1740's. It discusses the general history of Egyptology in the mid-eighteenth century, in particular the interest of surgeons in the subject of Egyptian embalming. As Douce's pyramid was built with the declared purpose of preserving his remains until the Last Trump, the article touches upon the issue of corporeal resurrection. Beyond this it argues that a belief in corporeal resurrection endured in educated English society, despite the weight of rationalist arguments concerning its practical feasibility.
Norman Hammond: Beyond the Mexique Bay: Church Monuments in Belize, Part II
Monuments in St John's Cathedral and the adjacent Yarborough Cemetery in Belize City, Central America, span the nineteenth century and include wall tablets in stone and brass, upright and various formats of recumbent gravestones. There is no figured sculpture, and the monuments commemorate the official and mercantile class that ruled and modestly prospered in the colony of British Honduras. Masons' names show that some monuments were imported from London, others from Scotland, the United States and Jamaica. Although the Cathedral was arguably an Anglican preserve, the cemetery was multi-denominational and multi-national.
Obituary: Walter Mendelsson, FSA
Dirk Breiding: Dynastic Unity:Fourteenth Century Military Effigies in the Chapel of Castle Kronberg
This article is a result of research undertaken for a thesis forming part of a Master's Degree in History of Art at University College, London in 1999. Examining the Chapel of the Castle of Kronberg near Frankfurt/Main, the thesis argues that the former had been built with a very distinct ideological and theological programme as a burial and chantry chapel to be used by three different branches of the same family, all resident in Kronberg Castle. The article is a revised extract concentrating on four military tomb effigies in the chapel. These four effigies are not only interesting sources for the study of late 14th century arms and armour but also show a remarkable diversity in the artistic quality.
Jon Bayliss
: An Indenture for Two Alabaster Effigies
This paper concerns the discovery of a previously unrecorded contract for the production of alabaster effigies from theworkshop of Thomas Prentys and Robert Sutton at Chellaston. Our perceptions of medieval sculpture are all to often coloured by the chance survival and prone to change with the publication of previously unknown documentation. Some works cannot be ignored, documentation or not, but others come to prominence because they are documented, whilst other contemporary work of equal merit is either largely ignored or judged in the context of the documented piece.
Jonathan Edis
: Beyond Thomas Kirby: Monuments of the Mordaunt Family and their Circle, 1567-1618
Thomas Kirby was once thought to have made a distinctive group of Renaissance church monuments in the Midlands during the 1570's. However doubts have been cast on his existence in recent years. Closer examination of the evidence reveals that the real sculptors were probably long term employees of the Mordaunt family and their close relations, and that they worked predominately from the Totternhoe stone quarries in Bedfordshire.
Clodagh Tait
: Irish Images of Jesus 1550-1650
In Ireland the post-Reformation production of images and devises,  in funerary sculpture and elsewhere, relating to devotions to Jesus, demonstrates His centrality to popular Catholic religiosity. This paper traces the different motifs used, thereby throwing light on several aspects of Irish Catholic piety during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Stephanie Knoell
: An eternal academic community: Oxford Memorials, 1580-1680
In contrast to many other early modern universities, the University of Oxford was (and still is) organised in colleges. These created a very strong sense of belonging among their members. It has been argued that funerary monuments contributed to the way in which '...[the college] understood and promoted itself.' In contrast to previous studies which concentrated on the academics' learnedness and their differences to the nobility, this paper takes a close look at the ways in which academics at Oxford represented themselves, and what roles the college community played in their understanding of themselves. 
Clive J Easter
: Notes on the Monuments and Career of Thomas Green of Camberwell: Some Recent Discoveries
It can be argued that church monuments in the 17th century underwent such fundamental changes in the way that monumental art was perceived as to mark the century out as perhaps the most important in the development of memorial sculpture at any time in British history. The key to these changes and possibly the most important aspect are those that affected the effigy and the way in which it was viewed within a broader cultural and social framework.
Philip Whittemore: Waller Fecit: London
It is exactly one hundred and fifty years since the Great Exhibition of 1851 and ninety-six since the death of John Green Waller. He was one of the foremost antiquaries of the Victorian era, as celebrated in his time as Albert Way, Charles Roach Smith and F W Fairholt. He was known variously as an artist, engraver and knowledgeable antiquary, whose pronouncements at the meetings of the Society of Antiquaries were always illuminating. With his brothers Lionel and William Augustus, he was responsible for a series of brasses that rivaled those designed by Pugin. Today the Waller brothers are remembered more for a A Series of Brasses from the 13th to the 16th Century, published in eighteen parts between 1840-1864, than the brasses they designed. This paper looks at the Waller family and places in context their contribution in the design and execution of monumental brasses. It examines J G Waller's antiquarian career in detail for the first time.
Gerardine M Mulcahy: An Eminent Sculptor: William Day Keyworth Jun. of London & Hull.
Celebrated for his abilities in portraiture and imaginative public sculpture, it is regretted that Keyworth junior executed relatively few church monuments. Nevertheless, alongside a brief biographical note, this paper introduces two of Keyworth junior's most successful works: the monuments to William Farquhar Hook in Leeds Parish Church and Archdeacon Musgrave in Halifax. Despite the lamentable absence of archival material, an account of the Hook monument can be construed from contemporary journals. Conversely a wealth of archival material affords an enlightening account of the monument to Archdeacon Musgrove including the imaginative fund raising effort of the Memorial Committee, their terms of agreement with the sculptor and the eventual reception of the monument when placed in the parish church
Peter Ryder: St John's Church, Stanwick, North Yorkshire: The Medieval Cross Slabs.
Stanwick. 6km north of Scots Corner in North Yorkshire is best known for its Iron Age earthworks complex, at the centre of which St John's parish church now stands alone, except for the 17th century house of Kirkbridge. The church is now in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust; apart from its fine west tower, south aisle and south porch, it was heavily rebuilt in 1868 by Anthony Salvin. The building does however retain one of the most important collections of carved stones and monumental remains in North Yorkshire. In addition to many pieces of pre-Conquest sculpture, four very weathered medieval effigies, two brass inscriptions and the 17th century Smithson monuments, there is a very rich extensive collection of medieval cross grave covers. This latter, probably the largest group of such monuments in North Yorkshire, has never been described in print.
Brian and Moira Gittos
:The Ingleby Arncliffe Group of Effigies: A Mid Fourteenth Century Workshop in North Yorkshire.This study examines a tightly-knit group of mid-fourteenth century effigies located in the former North Riding of Yorkshire. Recognition of the output from this local workshop provides a valuable insight into the choices available to patrons, and the monuments also demonstrate that differing forms were produced by the same source. Previously published dates range widely but it is now possible to demonstrate the group were produced over a short span of time. The extremely poor condition of some of the figures tends to obscure the original intent and achievement of the carvers but careful examination enables a much clearer picture to emerge, with some unusual features present. The overall impression is of a competent, local supplier exploiting an expanding and developing market by catering for the precise wishes of his clients. Full details of each figure are contained in the appended catalogue. 
Claud Blair and John Goodall
: An Effigy at Wilsthorpe: A Correction to Pevsner's Lincoln.
Nikolaus Pevsner is frequently criticized for innacuracies in his 'Buildings of England' series. Though the criticism is not unjustified, it nature has often seemed to me to be unfair in the light of the quite extraordinary personal achievement the series represents, and the important role it has played in the struggle to protect the nation's ancient buildings. The following correction of one of the innacuracies is therefore to be regarded as no more than that.
Mark Downing and Richard Knowles: A Fifteenth Century Helmet Depiction at Gnosall, Staffordshire.
It is perhaps surprising to discover an apparently unpublished but significant feature on a medieval monument. Here at Gnosall is just such an example.
Philip Whittemore
: Monumental Brasses Formerly in the Church of St Leonard, Shoreditch.
British Library Lansdowne Manuscript 874 is one of the most important heraldic collections to survive from the 16th century, but curiously enough, although well known, surprisingly little has been published concerning its content. It contains an unrivalled source, not only of drawings of monumental brasses, but also sepulchral monuments and stained glass, much of which has since disappeared. The manuscript lists 27 London churches, not all of which are recorded as having monuments. Nicholas Charles, who visited the majority of the churches, does not specify exactly what type of monument he is recording, but from the tenor of the inscriptions, the appear to be, in most cases, brasses. It is a matter of great regret that none of the London monuments in the manuscript are illustrated. This paper looks at one entry, that for St Leonard, Shoreditch and its collection of brasses.
Teresa Grant: 'Devotional Meditation': The Painted Ceiling at Skelmorlie Aisle.
Jean Wilson: Dead Fruit: The Commemoration of Still-Born and Unbaptized Children in Early Modern England.
John Lord: A Decade of Bertie Memorials in Lincolnshire.
Examines the Bertie tombs at Edenham 1728-1738
Charles Smith: The Memorial Stone Tomorrow: A Personal View.
The following article reflects the author's personal comments to the Society's 2001 Symposium. The editors feel that it makes an apt inclusion as a commencement for further reflection and discussion. In view of that I have included some illustrations of his craftsmanship in gravestone cutting.
Norman Hammond: Church Monuments in Belize: A Final Note.
Mark Downing: A Military Effigy at Clyffe Pypard, Wiltshire
Examines the fourteenth century monuments and seeks to identify its subject.
Sophie  Oosterwijk: Madonnas, Mothers, Mites and the Macabre: Three Examples of Mother-and-Child Tomb Iconography
Double effigies commemorating a parent with a child were relatively rare before the 16th century. This may explain why some medieval sculptors turned to religious motive for inspiration. The 13th century tombs effigy of the Lady Constancia and her son John at Scarcliffe, Derbyshire strongly resembles a Madonna and Child of the period, resulting in a clash between the standing posture of the Virgin and the recumbent character of the effigy. Two German monuments at Unterreichenbach and Oberwesel further illustrate how a religious theme might influence other types of tomb iconography.Philip Whittemore: Sir William Dugdale's 'Book of Draughts'
Sir William Dugdale's Book of Monuments is well known but surprisingly little of its contents has been published. This article looks at one aspect of this work, monumental brasses. The manuscript was compiled between 1640-1641 in anticipation of the forthcoming Civil War for Sir Christopher Hatton, Dugdale's patron. Although parts of the original manuscript are now lost, enough remains to provide a tantalizing glimpse of monuments that were soon to be swept away in the tide of the war. A summary list of all brasses illustrated in the manuscript forms an appendix to the paper. Also listed are a number of manuscripts associated with the Book of Draughts.
Paul Cockerham and Adam White: Epiphanius Evesham in a French Court.
Identifies surviving monuments by Evesham produced during his stay in Paris 1600-15
Jean Wilson: The Darling of the Gods
Considers seventeenth century monuments to those who died under 20 years of age.
Obituary: Dennis Corble
Anne Norman A V B Norman (1930-1998) and the Church Monuments Society
The study of arms and armour as art and the significance of military monumental effigies in art-historical research are two of the legacies inherited from the late A V B (Nick) Norman. It was at his initiative that a Society was established for the study of church monuments, with related publications to encourage and extend work in the field. His own research included many volumes of his minutely detailed drawings and these, together with his knowledge, enthusiasm, and genial personality, inextricably linked with Scotland, will long be remembered as keystones of the Society.
Sally Badham 'A New Feire Peynted Stone': Medieval English Incised Slabs?
Incised slabs are commonly regarded as minor monuments, lacking visual impact and chosen by patrons only when they could not afford more conspicuous monumental types. This paper challenges the assumption, presenting extensive material and documentary evidence concerning the use of polychrome and applied decoration on incised slabs, and examines how this affected the way in which these monuments were perceived by their intended audience. With such decoration, incised slabs would have been eye catching  even positioned on the floor, and would therefore have fulfilled their primary function of attracting the attention and the prayers of the faithful.
Phillip Lindley
'Disrespect for the Dead?' The Destruction of Tomb Monuments in Mid Sixteenth Century England
This paper examines the destruction of tomb monuments which took place on an unprecedented scale in England in the middle of the Sixteenth Century. It analyses the effects of the Dissolution of the Monasteries on tomb monuments and on the attitudes to the dead, then proceeding to consider the impact of the Reformation under Edward IV, with its abrogation of the doctrine of Purgatory, the dissolution of the chantries, and the new onslaught on monuments of the dead. Throughout this essay, attitudes to towards tomb monuments are situated in the contemporary religious and political climate : it is argued that the changed functions, styles, iconography, locations and formats of monuments in the second half of the Sixteenth Century must be directly linked both to the massive destruction of tomb monuments in the middle of the century and their continuing contentiousness. This period id the most important in the history of Christian tomb monuments in this country and constitutes the critical division between 'medieval' and 'early modern'. It is fundamental both to an understanding of medieval monuments and to an appreciation of those of the later sixteenth century and beyond.
Léon Lock
Tales of Seventeenth Century Flemish Tomb Monuments, or How the Patron and Sculptor Work Hand in Hand to Rewrite History
This article discusses two tomb monuments in the village church of Modave (near Huy, in the former prince-bishopric of Liège), erected for Jean-Gaspar, comte de Marchin, in c. 1672. One is by Lucas Faydherbe; the other is attributed to him, principally on account of a comparison with a series of monuments in the Southern Netherlands erected for other aristocratic persons who knew the comte de Marchin and  who copied him. A complex design and production schedule is suggested and placed in the context of a biography of the comte de Marchin that is brought together here. This shows the comte de Marchin's interest in raising his social status by a number of devices, including the one of erecting a bogus tomb monument to his grandparents and having his (partly invented) family tree published in a genealogical manuscript.  
Nigel Llewllyn
Horace Walpole and the Post-Reformation Funeral Monuments: the Limits of Antiquarianism  
The twenty-fifth anniversary of the Society is an appropriate occasion upon which to consider how attitudes towards funeral monuments have changed over time. Reflecting on the fundamental contribution made by Horace Walpole to the study of English monuments of the post-Reformation period, this article sets his work within the context of mid-eighteenth-century antiquarianism and seeks to reveal the aims and limitations of that methodology by taking as a case study a pair of early-seventeenth-century monuments in Salisbury Cathedral.
Philip Ward-Jackson Carlo Marochetti and the Tombs of Napoleon at the Dôme des Invalides, Paris and the Duke of Wellington at St Paul's Cathedral, London.
In quick succession, the French and British governments of the mid-nineteenth century were faced with the task of creating shrines for the greatest military heroes, Napoleon and Wellington. This article examines the inevitable parallels and the equally inevitable differences between these two monumental projects, both of which commanded space within hallowed baroque ecclesiastical structures. Carlo Marochetti, who attempted to win the commission for both monuments, appears as a 'living link' between them, and it is suggested that his abortive project for Napoleon's tomb significantly affected the choice by Alfred Stevens of a renaissance-style tiered structure for the tomb of Wellington.
Sally Badham and Philip Lankester Review Article
In reviewing Rachel Dressler's book Of Armour and Men in Medieval England, the authors examine how the study of medieval military effigies has progressed over the twenty five years that have elapsed since the formation of the CMS.
The validity of Dressler's stated aims and the extent to which they are achieved are scrutinised in the light of other recent publications and queries are raised about some of her theories and conclusions. The book should be read with caution, as  the author's  somewhat limited knowledge of English military effigies, armour and the status of knights in particular is thought likely to mislead and confuse the non-specialist.
Book Reviews
Francis Cheetham, Alabaster Images of Medieval England
Paul Binski, Becket's Crown, Art and Imagination in Gothic England
Mike McCarthy and David Weston (eds), Carlisle and Cumbria: Roman and Medieval Architecture, Art and Archaeology
Matthew J. Silence The Two Effigies of Archbishop Walter de Gray (d. 1255) at York Minster
The tomb of Archbishop Walter de Gray is a rare example of a freestanding, canopied tomb of the mid-thirteenth century. Despite an in-depth archaeological study in the late 60's, which revealed the hidden coffin lid with a full-length painted image of the deceased, there has been no subsequent questioning of the dating and purpose of the superstructure that covered the original monument. Recent research has contributed to a greater appreciation of the scale and role of painting in effigial monuments, and suggests that the painted coffin lid was unlikely to have been considered as simply a temporary measure. This article reconsiders the visual and documentary evidence to support a new dating of the monument and the circumstances surrounding its creation.
 Julian M. Luxford 'Thys Ys To Remember': Thomas Analby's Illustrations of Lost Medieval Tombs Cambridge, Fitzwilliam MS 329, is a mid-fifteenth-century secular cartulary written and illustrated by Yorkshireman Thomas Anlaby. It contains three coloured drawings of now destroyed tombs which stood at Swine, Meaux and Driffield in the East Riding of Yorkshire. This article describes and analyses these drawings in their manuscript context, assessing why they were added and how accurate they are. The drawing of the most important tomb, that of Baldwin of Béthune, sixth Count of Aumale (d. 1212), at Meaux, is examined alongside other surviving evidence for the monument's appearance.
Sophie Oosterwijk
Food for Worms - Food for Thought: the Appearance and Interpretation of the 'Verminous' Cadavers in Britain and Europe
Britain  has many surviving examples of 'transi' or cadaver tomb monuments and brasses, which range from so-called 'double-decker' tombs juxtaposing an effigy of the deceased 'au vif' with a representation of the corpse below to single cadaver effigies, skeletons and shroud effigies. One variety that appears to be much rarer in Britain than elsewhere in Northern Europe is the effigy infested with vermin, of which the brass of Ralph Hamsterley (d. 1518) at Oddington is the most obvious example. However, appearances can be misleading and there is a risk of misinterpretation, partly due to a lack of understanding of regional differences in iconography. This paper aims to provide a wider cultural context to the cadaver effigy in Europe, including the 'verminous' variety, whilst discussing four English monuments at Lowthorpe, Oddington, Flamborough and Tewkesbury that have previously been claimed as examples of this particular type.
Sally Badham and Jon Baylis
The Smalpage Monument at St Batholomew the Great, London, Re-examined
The monument at St Bartholomew-the-Great, London commemorating Percival Smalpage (d. 1559/9) and his wife Agnes (d. 1588) was commissioned by the couple's son and is attributed to Giles de Witte. A nineteenth century restoration resulted in parts of the monument being erroneously exchanged with those of another memorial in the church. The memorial throws interesting light on portraiture on monuments and the development of cadaver restorations in the sixteenth century.
Stefanie Knöll The Ducal Burial Place at Tübingen, Germany, 1537-93
The choir of the collegiate church at Tübingen, Germany, houses an impressive but little known ducal burial place which was in use for only a short period of time. Today there are about fourteen free standing and ten hanging monuments which commemorate members of the Württemberg family as well as other princely persons. This article will explore the institution of the burial place as well as the reasons for its discontinued use. It will also examine the most important tomb monuments to members of the Württemberg family interpret them with regard to their historical background.
Simon Watney Sky Aspiring Pyramids: Shakespeare and 'Shakespearan' Epitaphs in Early Stuart England
Since the time of Sir William Dugdale (1605-86) the memorial verses on the monuments to Sir Thomas Stanley (d. 1576) and his wife Lady Margaret Stanley (d. 1596) and their son Sir Edward Stanley (d. 1632) at St Bartholomew, Tong, Shropshire, have been attributed by some to William Shakespeare. It has not, however, previously been noted that one of the verses appears in a slightly variant form on the monument to Sir William Gosteick (d. 1615) at St Laurence, Willington, Bedfordshire. This article explores some of the issues raised by these verses, and concludes that whilst the poems are probably not by Shakespeare, they typify a widely held attitude towards church monuments in the early Stuart period which frequently contrast the enduring reputation of the deceased to the vulnerability of their physical remains and tombs. This outlook, and the style in which it is often couches, are understandably if rater misleadingly often considered 'Shakespearean'. This article concludes with some wider observations concerning the relevance of epitaphs to our understanding of the monuments and religion of the period.
Book Reviews
David Gaimster and Roberta Gilchrist (eds) The Archaeology of the Reformation 1480-1580)
Nigel Morgan (ed) Prophecy, Apocalypse and the Day of Doom, Proceedings of the 2000 Harlaxton Symposium, Harlaxton, Harlaxton Medieval Studies 12.
Richard Marks Image and Devotion in Late Medieval England
Stephanie A Knöll Creating Academic Communities: Funeral Monuments to Professors at Oxford, Leiden and Tübingen 1580-1700
Frits Scholten Sumptuous Memories: Studies in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Tomb Sculpture Studies in Netherlandish Art and Cultural History 5
Terry Friedman The Georgian Parish Church: Monuments to Posterity
Sandra Berresford and Robert Freidus with contributions by James Stevens Curl, Fred S Licht, Francesca Bregoli and Franco Sborgi Italian Memorial Sculpture 1830-1940: A Legacy of Love
Sally Badham 'Beautiful Remains of Antiquity': the Medieval Monuments in the Former Trinitarian Priory Church at Ingham, Norfolk. Part 1: The Lost Brasses.
The former Trinitarian priory church at Ingham once housed a magnificent collection of medieval monuments. An important series of seven brasses to the Stapleton family was sold for the value of the metal c. 1800, although their former appearance can be reconstructed from rubbings made in the eighteenth century and other antiquarian sources.
John Richards Sir Oliver Ingham (d. 1344) and the Foundation of the Trinitarian Priory at Ingham, Norfolk
The mural which was once visible in the recess of the tomb of Sir Oliver de Ingham (d. 1344) at Ingham, and which was published by C A Stothard in 1814, is open to several possible interpretations. It is examined here in the light of the refoundation of the church in which it is sited as a Trinitarian priory in 1360. This foundation itself may have been conceived as a memorial to Sir Oliver.Phillip Lindley (with an appendix by Carol Galvin)  New Paradigms for the Aristocratic Funerary Monuments around 1300: Reconstructing the Tomb of John, Second Baron Hastings (1287-1325) at Abergavenny Priory, Monmouthshire
This paper publishes  hitherto unknown antiquarian evidence for the tomb monuments of John, Second Baron Hastings (1287-1325), in Abergavenny Priory church (Monmouthshire). Sketches made in 1801 by the great antiquarian draughtsman John Carter make possible a new construction of the monument's original form and a reconsideration of its location within the church. In addition, an appendix by the conservator Carol Galvin adds much to our understanding of the way the fourteenth century timber effigy was produced, and how its surfaces were originally decorated with polychromy. 
Jennifer S Alexander, B W Hodgkinson & Sue A Hadcock
The Gylbert Monument in Youlgreave Church: Memorial of Liturgical Furnishing?
The Gylbert monument is an unusual memorial that it does not fit easily into the canon of alabaster tombs since it also served a second purpose as the retable to the Lady Chapel in Youlgreave church. The extent to which this compromises the design of the monument, in particular its inscription, demonstrates that this was an unusual composition. The layout of the monument, with the donors sharing the picture space with a sacred image, invites comparison with imagery on tomb chests although the difference between the Gylbert and these monuments are apparent. The original form, function and siting of the monument at Youlgreave are discussed and its role in the church assessed.
Hadrien Kockerols The Lost Tomb Monument of Cardinal de la Marck (d. 1538) at Liège Cathedral Revisited
Cardinal Erard de la Marck, Prince-Bishop of Liège from 1482 to 1538, had his monument erected in the middle of the choir of the cathedral of Saint-Lambert during his lifetime in 1528. The monument was in 'gilt-bronze' (gilt copper alloy) and had an unusual iconography; it disappeared in 1794. Travellers praised it, but drawings or prints illustrating it are rare and also contradict each other. A recently discovered unpublished drawing and an accompanying description form the basis for a new reading of the monument as it was originally. The critical examination of this material leads to the conclusion that the monument was drastically altered at least once.  
Lawrence Butler The Monument to Sir Robert Dormer (d. 1552) at Wing, Buckinghamshire: A New Hypothesis
 This paper argues that the tomb of Sir Robert Dormer (d. 1552) in the north aisle of Wing church is not of a single period , but it was developed in three stages over thirty years. The first stage was a free standing tomb chest located slightly further east with two inscription plates on its lid. The second stage, here dated to after 1571, was an elaborated tomb with a canopy supported on Corinthian columns and with family shields on the rear (north) wall that we see today. The third stage, conceived in 1590, abandoned the idea of a joint family commemoration when an ornate monument with effigies to Sir William Dormer (d. 1575) and his second wife Dorothy was erected in the chancel. The intended inscriptions on the rear wall panel and upper frieze were never painted.  
David Wilson Roubiliac, The Earl of Pembroke and the Chancellor's Discretion: Preservation of the Nation's Heritage by the Consistory Courts of the Church of England
This paper considers the Church of England's approach to the controversial subject of removing monuments or part of monuments from churches. Its starting point is the renewed controversy over Roubiliac's celebrated bust of the ninth earl of Pembroke (c. 1750), which was sold from a church in Wiltshire in 1997 and then reappeared in auction in 2005. While that case was preceded by numerous consistory court cases where faculties had been granted for the removal of monuments, or parts of them, the trend  of decisions in similar cases in more recent years renders the prospects of success almost negligible in future similar applications. This paper also examines the wider context of the removal of important works of art from specifically designed settings, often in listed buildings (e.g. Canova's Three Graces ) , and demonstrated how the consistory courts have developed a more robust attitude to the matter than have the secular authorities. 
Book Reviews
Theme issue of Hortus Artium Medievalium (Journal of the International Research Center for Late Antiquity and Middle Ages) La Représentation de la Morte de l'Antiquité Tardive à la Fin du Moyen Âge
Truus van Bueren and Andrea van Leerdam (eds) Care for the Here and Hereafter: Momoria, Art and Ritual in the Middle Ages
Julian M Luxford The Art and Architecture of English Benedictine Monasteries, 1300-1540: A Patronage History
Kate Giles and Christopher Dyer (eds) Town and Country in the Middle Ages: Contrasts, Contracts and Interconnections 1100-1500
Peter Heseltine A Bestiary of Brass
A F Sutton and L Visser-Fuchs with R A Griffiths The Royal Funerals of the House of York at Windsor
Justin E A Kroesen and Regnerus Steensma  The Interior of the Medieval Church/ Het Middeleeuwse Dorpskerkinterieur
Frits Scholten and Monike Verber From Vulcan's Forge. Bronzes from the Rijkmuseum, Amsterdam 1450-1800.
Barbara Borngässer, Henrik Karge and Bruno Klein (eds) Grabkunst und Sepulkralkultur in Spanien und Portugal - Arte Funerario y Cultura Sepulcral en Eapaña y Portugal
Dane Munro with photography by Maurizio Urso Memento Mori: a Companion to the Most Beautiful Floor in the World
Catharine Arnold Necropolis: London and its Dead
Sally Badham 'Beautiful Remains of Antiquity': The Medieval Monuments in the Former Trinitarian Priory Church at Ingham Norfolk. Part 2: the High Tombs.
The former Trinitarian priory church at Ingham once housed a magnificent collection of medieval monuments. The surviving but damaged fourteenth-century sculptured monuments to Oliver, Lord Ingham, and to Sir Roger and Lady Margaret de Boys throw much light on the complexity of painting technology used for medieval tomb sculpture and the sophistication of the effects thus obtained. The former is noted for its puzzling imagery, while the latter has unique Trinitarian iconography relating to an elite parochial guild, of which Sir Roger was a co-founder.
Mireille Madou The Tomb of Doña Maria Urraca López de Haro (d.1262) in the Abbey of Cañas, Spain
This paper discusses the impressive monument to a medieval abbess in the small village of Cañas in the Rioja valley in Spain and identifies it as that of Doña Maria Urraca López de Haro, who died in1262. A Castilian noblewoman who from early childhood grew up in the local Cistercian nunnery at Cañas, she is likely to have met St Francis of Assisi in person and also may have been, according to a local legend, a childhood friend of St Dominic, founder of the Dominican order. Her life and family history will help explain the highly individualised iconography of her monument and how it came to be commissioned.
Jean Wilson
Go for Baroque: The Bruce Mausoleum at Maulden, Bedfordshire
The Bruce or Ailesbury mausoleum at Maulden (Bedfordshire) was intended to present the monument to Diana, Countess of Elgin and Oxford, surrounded by a circle of effigies of her husband's descendents. Although the original intention was never fully realised, and the building altered during the nineteenth century, recent restoration makes it possible to consider the monument in the context of contemporary works and to question whether it should be properly designated a mausoleum, or simply as an interesting example of Baroque art executed during the Cromwellian era.
Vikki Coltman Commission by Correspondence: John Flaxman's Monument to William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield
This article offers a commentary on the correspondence and two related sketches that document the commissioning of and design for a monument to William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield. In the eighteenth century, such negotiations are frequently conducted on paper, in an epistolary dialogue between artist and patron. In this instance, the dialogue is between the British sculptor John Flaxman and Mansfield's nephew and heir, David Murray, 6th Viscount Stormont and 2nd Earl of Mansfield. The letters involve a third correspondent in the negotiations, Sir William Hamilton, who initiated the contact between patron and sculptor. He is shown to have superintended the entire commission, from recommending Flaxman to his relative Mansfield to selecting the preferred design. The correspondence was not only tripartite, but also what one of Flaxman's letters refers to as 'distant', with Mansfield's address being given as Portland Place, London; Flaxman 'bound by the almost everlasting operations of sculpture' in Rome; and Hamilton 'being on so respectable a footing' as the British Envoy at the court of Naples.
Barbara Tomlinson The Explorers of the North-West Passage: Claims and Commemoration
This article will look at the way in which Victorian Arctic explorers were commemorated and how their memorials promoted rival claims to the discovery of the North-West Passage. These monuments are characterised by a developing polar iconography largely based on the sketches made by expedition members, and they reflect the influence of contemporary social, religious and scientific attitudes.
George Thomson Small Gravemarkers at Temple Balsall, Warwickshire: A Remarkable Coincidence?
A detailed study was made of the morphology of a set of small gravemarkers known as Dames' Stones at Temple Balsall (Warwickshire), with a particular reference to discoid and ringed cross forms. These headstones were made from 1850 over a period of more than a hundred years to a similar range of designs. The period of use and the frequency of the various forms are detailed and analysed. The discoid headstones have a remarkable similarity to some Templar markers in the Languedoc and elsewhere in southern Europe. This paper presents evidence for the probably source of design and discusses the coincidence if similar artifacts in Templar sites, which are separated considerable both geographically and in time.
Book Reviews
Jerome Bertram (ed) The Catesby Family and their Brasses at Ashby St Ledgers.
Paul Cockerham Continuity and Change: Memorialisation and the Cornish Funeral Monument Industry 1497-1660
Ronald Van Belle Vlakke Grafmonumenten en Memorietaferelen met Persoonsafbeeldingen in West Vlaanderen: een Inventaris, Funeraire Symboliek en Overzicht van het Kostuum
Clive Burgess and Eamon Duffy (eds) The Parish Church in Late Medieval England
John R Kenyon and Diane M Williams (eds) Cardiff. Architecture and Archaeology in the Diocese of Llandaff
Sven Hauschke Die Grabdenkmäler der Nürnberger Vischer-Werkstatt 1453-1544
J Guillaume (ed) Demeures d'Éternité: Églises et Chapelles Funéraires aux XVe et XVIe siècles.
Andrea Baresel-Brand Grabdenkmäler Nordeuropäischer Fürstenhäuser im Zeitalter der Renaissance 1550-1650
Stafanie A Knöll Die Grabmonumente der Stiftskirche in Tübingen
Obituary John Coales OBE FSA (1931-2007)
                    CHURCH MONUMENTS VOLUME XXIII 2008                                        
Andrew Sargent, A Re-Used Twelfth-Century Grave Cover from St Andrew's, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge.
The church at Cherry Hinton houses a late-twelfth-century cross slab grave cover which was converted into a semi-effigial slab in the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century. This paper explores the motivations behind the initial creation and later re-use of this slab, and suggest that both actions may have formed part of attempts to manipulate social status.
Sally Badham, The de la More Effigies at Northmoor (Oxfordshire) and Related Monuments at Winterbourne (Gloucestershire).
This paper examines two groups of mid-fourteenth-century monuments, comprising three military effigies and two associated ladies, at Northmoor (Oxfordshire) and Winterbourne(Gloucestershire).The armour shown on the three military figures is unusual  but virtually identical, and all five monuments are evidently from the same workshop.Yet petrologic analysis shows that the stylistic group transcends the material employed. The effigies appear to be the work of a single group of well-trained sculptors who came to the church site to work, using locally available stone rather than carving the figures at a central urban workshop before transporting them to Northmoor and Winterbourne.
Douglas Brine,
The Indulgenced Memorial Tablet of Jean de Libourc (d 1470), Canon of Saint-Omer.
Canon Jean de Libourc (d. 1470) had a sculptured relief memorial tablet installed above his grave in the collegiate church of Saint-Omer (France) which featured, unusually, the image of the Mass of St Gregory and an accompanying inscription detailing a substantial indulgence that was available to its viewers. The tablet, recently attributed to the sculptor Jean Martin, can be shown to have been based on an extant contemporary Mass of St Gregory woodcut. This essay assesses the reasons for the  choice of imagery of Libourc's memorial, the significance of its original physical setting, and the effectiveness of the strategies it employs to attract the prayers of the living for the canon.
Sophie Oosterwijk, 'For No Man Mai Fro Dethes Stroke Flee': Death and Danse Macabre iconography in memorial art.
The personified figure of Death occurs frequently on tomb monuments from the fifteenth century onwards: a famous late example is Louis-François Roubiliac's dramatic monument in Westminster Abbey, which shows Lady Elizabeth Nightingale (d. 1731) being assailed by Death. The aggressive personification of Death is very different from the recumbent cadaver figures found on transi tombs from the late fourteenth century on, although both types may engage in a dialogue with the living. In some cases, the image of Death confronting and even attacking the living was directly inspired by the danse macabre, in which metaphors about dialogue, dance and violence are curiously mixed. Evidence from commemorative art thus helps us reassess the importance of this medieval theme even after the Reformation. This essay furthermore aims to show how prints may have influenced tomb design and how patrons chose not only tomb monuments to be remembered by, but also other forms of memorial.
Jean Wilson & E J Kenney,
The Monument to Gerard Legh (d 1563) in St Dunstan-in-the-West, Fleet Street, London.
The monument to Gerard Legh (d 1563) in St Dunstan-in-the-West is sophisticated in both its visual design and in its Latin inscription in the form of a dialogue between a Citizen of London and a Stranger. The artistic design has a bearing on Legh's life. The high quality of the monument, together with Legh's family connections and those of his friend Richard Argall, makes it possible that Argall commissioned the monument from the Cure atelier.
Dane Munro,
St John's Conventual Church in Valletta, Malta: the Dynamism of a Church Floor.
The floor of St John's Co-Cathedral in Valletta, Malta, is in many ways exceptional. The quality and quantity of its polychrome marble intarsia sepulchral slabs deserve our attention as much as the remarkable story of the floor's survival and revival. Its culture of memory, initiated by the Order of St John during its stay on the island, has been preserved and nurtured. The floor and its commemorative character have thus become an integral part of Malta's heritage.
Clive Easter, New Attributions and the Identification of Some Lost Monuments.
Of the surviving early-eighteenth-century monuments in Devon and Cornwall only a small number can be associated either directly or indirectly with an identifiable artist. According to Rupert Gunnis, John Weston was one of the most remarkable of the provincial statuaries working at that time; he was certainly the foremost monument maker in the region. A preliminary article, recording the known documentary evidence of Weston's life and focusing on his Last Judgement panels, was published in Church Monuments, X (1995) . The paper presented here argues that a number of other monuments should be attributed to Weston, including an important example that has received little previous attention. Due to the lack of documentary evidence, the attribution to Weston of previously monuments must be based on stylistic comparisons with his signed or otherwise attributed works. This paper also discusses a number of lost monuments that, from the descriptions or surviving fragments , can be identified as Weston products.
Paul Cockerham Review Article: Phillip Lindley, Tomb Destruction and Scholarship - Medieval Monuments in Early Modern England. 3
Book Reviews
Christopher Starr, Medieval Mercenary, Sir John Hawkwood of Essex
Steffen Krämer, Herrschaftliche Grablege und Iokaler Heiligenkult. Architektur des Englischen Decorated Style
Margaret Scott, Medieval Dress and Fashion
Susie Nash, with contributions by Till-Holger Borchert and Jim Harris, 'No Equal in Any Land' André Beauneveu, Artist to the Courts of France and Flanders.
Mathew Davies & Andrew Prescott (eds) London and the Kingdom. Essays in Honour of Caroline M Barron.
Richard Marks (ed) Late Gothic England: Art and Display
Roberta Panzanelli with Eike Schmidt and Kenneth Lapatin (eds), The Color of Life: Polychromy in Sculpture from Antiquity to the Present Day
Peter Sherlock, Monuments and Memory in Early Modern England.
K Finch and N Tyacke, Altars Restored: the Changing Face of English Religious Worship 1547-c. 1700.
Wannabe Rickets, The English Country House Chapel. Building a Protestant Tradition.
J P G Taylor, A Fair Gate to Oblivion, A Celebration of the English Epitaph.
Mathew Craske, The Silent Rhetoric of the Body: a History of Monumental Sculpture and Commemorative Art in England 1720-1770.
Robert Dunning (ed), Somerset Churches & Chapels: Building, Repair and Restoration.
Margaret Pullan, The Monuments of the Parish Church of St Peter-at-Leeds.
Toria Forsyth-Moser (ed),  So Who Do You Think They Were? The Memorials of Ripon Cathedral.      
Julian M. Luxford, Tombs as forensic evidence in medieval England.
This article presents examples of the use of tombs as legal evidence (actual or potential) in medieval England. Clearly, not all tombs served or were designed to serve forensic functions, but the examples presented here suggest that the phenomenon was more pervasive than is currently acknowledged. The focus is on historical rather than literary evidence: the canonisation proceedings, laws devised with reference to tombs, and the use of tombs in later medieval property and privilege disputes and court of chivalry proceedings are all considered, along with the small quantity of surviving monumental and artistic evidence known to the author. The primary intention is to widen the frames of reference according to which the function of tombs can be considered.
Hadrien Kockerols, Defensor fidei: the iconography of the knight with a drawn sword on twelfth- and thirteenth- century monuments of the low countries.
Twelfth- and thirteenth-century tomb monuments in the Low Countries demonstrate a particular type of tomb iconography; viz: that of a knight brandishing a drawn sword.  This imagery contrasts with the more conventional effigy, depicted in an attitude of prayer, which can be seen on non-military monuments, especially those of women. This type of representation seems to be specific to the region, although it is popularity had waned by the end of the thirteenth century. The present study concentrates on the iconography of tomb monuments in the Low Countries, although examples will be quoted from further afield.
Elizabeth Freeman, The tomb as a political narrative at the turn of the fourteenth century: reassessing the funerary monument and statue of Berardo Maggi, bishop of Brescia (d. 1308).
The funerary monument of Berardo Maggi, Bishop of Brescia, has been unjustly neglected in the discussions of medieval tomb sculpture. Yet there is no other contemporary Italian episcopal tomb to rival its sophistication and complexity. Although the theme of exequies belongs to standard iconography, the imagery of oath-swearing, also represented here , is innovative within the context of Italian episcopal tomb sculpture. Furthermore, while this monument has occasionally been cited alongside a fresco in the Broletto in Brescia, little has been made - despite its analogous iconography - of a statue of Bishop Maggi, erected in recognition of his services to the local Augustinian community, which now stands in Brescia's Santa Giulia museum. Examination of the tomb and the statue, which are here juxtaposed for the first time, provides an insight into Maggi; a prelate esteemed in his own lifetime and beyond for the historically significant role as peace negotiator that he played in hid feud-riven native city.
Rhianydd Biebrach,  'Our ancient blood and our kings': two early-sixteenth-century heraldic tombs in Llandaff Cathedral, Wales.
Owing to the under-representation of medieval Welsh funerary monuments in the standard works on the subject, we have little general appreciation of the monuments themselves or their place in the wider British artistic and cultural context of the Middle Ages. This essay seeks to remind the reader on this imbalance by exploring two pre-Reformation Tudor monuments to the Matthew family in Llandaff Cathedral, Cardiff. While superficially very similar, the monuments in fact project two quite different visions of the family via their locations in the church and, most importantly, the heraldry on the tomb chests. The latter concern raises the question of whether it is possible to identify a specific type of 'Welsh tomb' in the late Middle Ages and early Tudor period.
Sally Badham, A painted canvas funerary monument of 1615 in the collections of the Society of Antiquaries of London and its comparators.
A painting in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries of London, which has formerly been regarded as a memento mori, is shown here to be a funerary monument painted on canvas. There are few other extant examples on canvas, but similar compositions to the Antiquaries' painting can be found painted on stone and wood panels and even painted directly onto plaster on the walls of churches. Few are similarly portable in character, however, which suggests that the Antiquaries' painting may have been commissioned for a reason other than as a permanent church fixture and that it may even have functioned in a broader commemorative capacity.
Atis V. Antonovics, The tomb of Lady Frances Waldegrave at Chewton Mendip (Somerset): new documentation on a late-Victorian sculptural commission.
The extant diaries of Lord Carlingford, forth husband of Frances Waldegrave (1821-79), which are held in the British Library, throw fresh light on the memorial chapel and tomb portrait in the parish church at Chewton Mendip (Somerset). They enable us to chart the detailed sequence of the negotiations between sculptor and patron, as well as the providers of the stained-glass window and metal grave enclosure. At the same time a parallel commemorative tablet was ordered for the church at Navestock (Essex). Contemporary reactions to the monuments are also recorded.
Cameron B. Newhan, Towards an inventory of church monuments in England.
The vast majority of the tens of thousands of monuments in English churches are undocumented and unrecorded. For the past twelve years a project that is photographically recording the majority of pre-1900 churches in England has been addressing this deficiency. The project had already completed over half the rural churches in the country and as part of the process has photographed a large number of monuments ranging from obscure brass inscription plates through to large, well-known displays by the greatest sculptors. The resulting photographic archive will form the basis for a database which will allow searches to be made on the building and their fittings. The database will include many aspects of church monuments including type, design features and the people associated with them.
Book Reviews
Nigel Saul, English church monuments in the middle ages: history and representation.
Sally Badham and Geoff Blacker, Northern rock: the use of Egglestone marble for monuments in medieval England.
Eva Leistenschneider, Die französische Königsgrablege Saint-Denis. Strategien monarchischer Repräsentation (1223-1461).
Antje Fehrmann,
Grab und Krone. Königsgrabmäler im mittelalterlichen England und die posthume Selbstdarstellung der Lancaster.
Simon Roffey, Chantry chapels and medieval strategies for the afterlife.
Danielle Westerhof, Death and the noble body in medieval England.
John McNeill (ed.), King's Lynn and the Fens: medieval art, architecture and archaeology.
Steven Gunn and Linda Monckton (eds), Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales. Life, death & commemoration.
Scott L. Newstok, Quoting death in early modern England: the poetics of epitaphs beyond the tomb.
Oliver Meys, Memoria und Bekenntnis. Die Grabdenkmäler evangelischer Landesherren in Heiligen Römischen Reich Deutscher Nation im Zeitalter der Konfessionalisierung.
Simon Marsden, Memento mori: churches and churchyards of England.
David Meara, Modern memorial brasses.
Sally Badham with photography and illustrations by Martin Stuchfield,  Monumental brasses.
Oliver D. Harris 'Une tresriche sepulture' The tomb and chantry of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster in Old St Paul's Cathedral, London
This paper examines the history and design of the lost tomb and chantry chapel of John of Gaunt (d. 1399) and his first wife Blanche of Lancaster (d. 1368) in St Paul's Cathedral, London. The tomb was erected between 1374 and 1380 to the design of Henry Yevele, and the separate chapel added between 1399 and 1403. Both were destroyed in or shortly before 1666, but they are documented in records relating to their commissioning, construction and devotional setting, and in a succession of antiquarian notices of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. A feature of the two effigies was that they were portrayed joining hands: the monument's place in the dissemination of this pose and theories of its meaning are considered in an appendix.
Christian Steer 'better in rememberance' Medieval commemoration at the Crutched Friars, LondonThis essay is intended to fill a gap in the study of medieval church monuments in the city of London and in particular those from a former religious house, the Crutched Friars. The foundation of this house, and its appeal to particular social groups, will be discussed and compared with the foundation of the other four orders of friars in the city. Comparisons will be made to examine how, and why, the Crutched Friars appealed to Londoners and non-Londoners, and why they wanted to be buried and commemorated there. The popularity of this convent as a place of burial is also discussed, particularly the years leading up to its dissolution in 1538. Written records and testamentary instructions will be used to discussed the types of monuments that were requested and eventually commissioned. From these, suggestions are made on how the 'commemorative landscape' at the Crutched Friars may have looked and how the deceased, their families and executors influenced this. This 'landscape' is also reflected in the decisions made to exhume a number of the dead from the Crutched Friars and removal of their monuments.
Mark Duffy Two fifteenth-century effigies in Burghfield church and the Montagu mausoleum at Bisham (Berkshire)
Bisham Priory (Berkshire) was one of many English aristocratic mausolea destroyed after the Dissolution. At its height it housed the remains of seven earls, six countesses and a marquis; the males were almost without exception leading political and military figures, most notably Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, 'The Kingmaker'. Examination of the effigies of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury (d. 1460) and an unidentified female aristocrat in Burghfield church  (Berkshire) is the starting-point for a reconstruction of the mausoleum and its monuments; a task made possible by an exceptional number of contemporary monuments, including two of the handful of surviving English medieval tomb contracts and an image of the church. The concluding impression is of a mausoleum which must have rivalled the finest in England outside London, and in which at least two monuments appear to have had almost regal aspects.
Kelcey Wilson-Lee Dynasty and strategies of commemoration: knightly families in late-medieval and early modern Derbyshire, part 1
An unusually complete mausoleum of late-medieval and early modern monuments to members of the Cokayne family survives at Ashbourne (Derbyshire). This article examines those monuments and supplementary commemorative features such as stained glass, alongside documentary sources related to the family, to demonstrate how successive generations of Cokaynes constructed an elaborate advertisement of dynastic authority within the public sphere of the parish church. While the prestige associated with individual monuments varied according to the situation of the family, the consistent pattern of burial location and the creation of posthumous monuments suggest a conscious association between public perception of dynastic stability and cohesive sepulchral programmes.
Katharine Eustace Before of after? A model of the monument to Mary Thornhurst (1549-1609) in St Michael's Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral
The recent appearance on the London art market of a small model of an early-seventeenth-century church monument has raised considerable interest. The model, identified by the present author as related to one of the group of Thornhurst monuments in Canterbury Cathedral, is a rare survival. If it was made for the patron or client in the process of commission, and dates from the time of the commission, c. 1609-16, it is an extraordinary and - as far as is known - unique survival, and adds a piece to the jigsaw of what we know of the practice of seventeenth-century sculpture. If, as is also possible, it is a model made subsequent to the commissioning and erection of the monument, it remains unique and of antiquarian and socio-historical interest. This article addresses the many questions raised by this curious object and considers the motives in its making.
Jon Bayliss 'What stronger circle can Art-magick find?' Thomas Skippe, the seventeenth-century Skippe monuments at North Tuddenham (Norfolk), and Thomas Heywood
The identity of a bust of a man enclosed in a circle of books on a mural monument in North Tuddenham (Norfolk) with only a verse epitaph as an inscription has long been obscure. However, Thomas Heywood's publication of the same verse epitaph in 1637 reveals that it is to Thomas Skippe. Reasons for the failure to identify the monument earlier are discussed below. Before his early death, Skippe had provided monuments to his daughter Frances and to his first wife Katharine, and probably a tomb chest over the family vault. Reasons for not attributing Thomas and Katharine Skippe's monument to Heywood's collaborators of the 1630's - the Christmas family of sculptors - are examined. Thomas Heywood also provided a verse epitaph for Katharine Skippe, but it was not used on her mural monument although the verse that was substituted for it is evidently also from his hand. The latter relates not only to an elegy on Mary Littleboyes and an epitaph for an unnamed young woman, both by Heywood, but also to the verse epitaph on the brass to Alice Bateman at Kendal. However, the Bateman epitaph additionally includes adaptations of verse by other contemporary poets.
Clare Walcot 'Time ennobles, or degrades each Line' Monuments to James Craggs, father and son, c.1721-27
This article addresses one well-known early-eighteenth-century monument in conjunction with another related family commemorative commission, in order to explore what they reveal about the management of posthumous reputations in the period. It focuses on the circumstances surrounding the production of the monument to James Craggs in Westminster Abbey, and considers it in to the commemoration of his father in the parish church of St Luke's, Charlton (Kent). Although both men died within weeks of each other in 1721 while under intense government scrutiny for their involvement in the South Sea Scheme, attempts to secure their lasting posterity were entirely different. In contrast to the modest memorial to Craggs Snr in St Luke's churchyard, which was placed among other family monuments sited there, the commemoration of his son was a grand public statement invested in by many individuals, not the least the poet Alexander Pope.
Sarah Burnage A 'mere massy monument' The contested monument to John Howard (1786-96) at St Paul's Cathedral, London
This essay explores the anxiety and controversy which surrounded the commissioning of the monument to the famed philanthropist and prison reformer John Howard (1726-90). It was hoped that the monument, which had been awarded a prime location under the dome of St Paul's Cathedral, would stand for generations as a testament to Howard's heroic charitable deeds. John Bacon Snr R.A. had secured the important and lucrative commission in 1791 and accordingly designed a monument which eloquently articulated Howard's philanthropic character. However, this emotive and seemingly innocuous design received heavy criticism from contemporaries and quickly became entangled in a series of long running debates regarding the legislative reach of the Royal Academy, the aesthetic of sculptural decorum and the politicisation of monumental art.
John Richards Review Article: Ettore Napione, Le arche Scaligere di Verona
Jean Wilson Review Article: Ingrid Roscoe, Emma Hardy and M. G. Sullivan, A biographical dictionary of sculptors in Britain 1660-1851
Book Reviews
Sally Badham and Sophie Oosterwijk (eds), Monumental industry: the production of tomb monuments in England and Wales in the long fourteenth century
Kathleen Nolan, Queens in stone and silver: the creation of a visual imagery of queenship in Capetian France
Paul Binski and Ann Massing (eds) with Maries Louise Sauerberg, The Westminster Retable: history, technique, conservation.
Hadrien Kockerols, Les gisants du Brabant Wallon
Mark Downing, Medieval military monuments in Lincolnshire
Peter Coss, The foundations of gentry life. The Multons of Frampton and their world 1270-1370
Julia Boffey and Virginia Davis (eds), Recording medieval lives
Sophie Jugie, The mourners, Tomb scuptures from the court of Burgundy
Françoise Baron, Sophie Jugie and Benoî Lafay, Les tombeaux des ducs de Burgogne. Création, destruction , restauration.
Inga Brinkmann, Grabdenkmäler, Grablegen und Begräbniswesen des lutherischen Adels
Mark Girouard, Elizabethan architecture. Its rise and fall 1540-1640
Karen Hearn and Lynn Hulse (eds), Lady Anne Clifford: culture, patronage and gender in the seventeenth-century Britain
A. V. Grimstone, Building Pembroke Chapel: Wren, Pearce and Scott
Erika Naginski, Sculpture and the Enlightenment
G. Thomson, Inscribed in remembrance. Gravemarker lettering: form, function and recording
Obituary Claude Blair CVO OBE MA LittD FSA (1922-2010)
Sally Badham An enigmatic semi-effigial monument at Brize Norton (Oxfordshire) Philip J Lankester A note on the semi-effigial monument at Staunton-in-the-Vale (Nottinghamshire)
The semi-effigial monument at Brize Norton is an outstanding piece of work, combining several carving techniques. The incised marginal inscription in textura lettering records that it commemorates John Daubeney (d. 1346); although no trace of him can be found in the public records, he was probably descended from a cadet branch of one of the more illustrious branches of the Albini family of Belvoir (Leicestershire). Although the same stone type used indicates that it was produced locally, the composition of the monument is unusual for Oxfordshire, the closest camparator being the slab to William de Staunton (d. 1326) at Staunton (Nottinghamshire), although the identity and date of the latter slab may not be as certain as has generally been assumed.
Kelcey Wilson-Lee Dynasty and strategies of commemoration: Knightly families in late-medieval and early modern Derbyshire, part 2
This article continues the study of strategies of commemoration among the Derbyshire gentry by examining the sepulchral monuments commemorating members of the knightly Foljambe family at four different Derbyshire churches. Using documentary sources alongside the evidence of the monuments themselves, it will demonstrate how and why the family frequently shifted their burial site between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. Despite the haphazard appearance of their burial places, the Foljambes carefully managed their commemorative spaces to display an approved version of family history, which eschewed longevity in favour of simplified storylines and completeness in favour of perceived simplicity.
John Richards The 'sepolcro triunfale' of Sts Simon and Jude in San Giovanni in Valle, Verona, and a late gothic tomb-building partnership in the Veneto
The Veronese tomb of Sts Simon and Jude has attracted more scholarly attention to the early Christian sarcophagus incorporated within a late Gothic setting than to the setting itself. This paper seeks to redress that imbalance and examine the work done in the 1330's, when the tomb was constructed. It also examines the relationships between the tomb and the cult of the two Apostles in Verona, as well as its place in the careers of the two artists to whom the gothic elements can be attributed, the sculptor Antonio da Mestre and the painter Martino da Verona, whose partnership was a dominant force in Verona and its surroundings in the later trecento and the early quattrocento.
Lawrence Butler The tombstone attributed to the mason Hugh Rose at East Winch (Norfolk)
In the north aisle of East Winch church (Norfolk) lies a tomb slab which was found face down in the south porch in 1875.It is claimed that this commemorates Hugh Rose, the mason responsible for rebuilding the church, who died in 1423. The character of the tomb carving and its symbols are discussed with relation to other masons' tomb slabs. The origin of the attribution is examined and the credence that may be placed on this claim is assessed. Upon detailed examination this claim appears to be without any factual historical foundation.
Brian and Moira Gittos A mason's memorial at South Cave (Yorkshire)
A loose and broken slab in All Saints', South Cave (East Riding of Yorkshire), carries an incised cross, shield, masons' square, the initials 'I B' and the bas-relief bust of a man. Of indifferent quality, it can be shown to date from the late fifteenth century and is relatable to a monument (dated 1464), which was recorded in the nave of Selby Abbey (North Yorkshire) by the antiquary W. D. Sweeting. The South Cave slab commemorates the mason John Barton (d. 1483) whose surviving will asks for burial in this church. It is a rare example of an effigial monument to an English medieval mason for whom there is identifying documentary evidence.
Sofija Matich and Jennifer S. Alexander Creating and recreating the Yorksist tombs in Fotheringhay church (Northamptonshire)
The two sixteenth-century tombs in Fotheringhay church commemorating fifteenth-century members of the Yorksist dynasty whose roles as ancestors of the Tudor monarchy required that new monuments be set up to replace their damaged originals. Despite being royal tombs, the documents that describe the events of their recreation omit to mention how the tombs were paid for. A consideration of the histories of the original tombs, coupled with a close examination of the sixteenth-century documents, enables the events of 1572/3 to be understood more fully.
Clive J Easter The Cary family of Clovelly: a case of familial commemoration in late-seventeenth-century Devon
The twelve Cary family monuments at Clovelly (Devon) are one of the most important such groupings of monuments in the county. Not previously considered in their entirety, this article provides an overview of the history of the Clovelly branch of the family, looks closely at the monuments and considers the origin of their design as well as the possible location of the workshop that produced them. The concluding section considers the ideas behind the erection of the monuments and how the collection might have been interpreted by the contemporary spectator.
Review Articles
Approaches to the study of church monuments: the elite status of those commemorated, regional studies and multi-disciplinarity.
Kirsty Owen
Identity, commemoration  and dying well. Exploring the relationship between the Ars Moriendi tradition and the material culture of death in Gloucestershire, c.1350-1700 AD. SALLY BADHAM
Jan van Oudheusden and Harry Tummers (eds) De grafzerken van de Sint-Jan te's-Hertogenbosch  SOPHIE OOSTERWIJK
Book Reviews
Robert Griffith-Jones and David Park (eds) The Temple Church in London: history, architecture, art.
Margret Lemberg God erbarme dich uber mich/bruder des bergere ouch ich. Die Grablegen des hessischen Fürstenhauses
Mark Downing Military effigies of England and Wales, Vol 1: Bedfordshire-Derbyshire
Sally Badham Medieval church and churchyard monuments
Caroline M. Barron and Clive Burgess (eds) Memory and commemoration in medieval England
J. M. Luxford and M. A. Michael (eds) Tributes to Nigel Morgan, contexts of medieval art: images, objects & ideas
Matthew Saunders Saving churches. The Friends of Friendless Churches: the first 50 years.
Nigel Saul The early fifteenth-century monument of a serjeant-at-law in Flamstead church (Hertfordshire)
Attention is drawing to a hitherto unidentified monument at Flamstead (Hertfordshire) to a serjeant-at-law and his wife, datable to the early fifteenth century. It is suggested that the serjeant commemorated is one Thomas Frisby, who had connections with the earls of Warwick, the lords of the manor of Flamstead. The monument is of Totternhoe stone, and stylistic connections are made with two other fifteenth-century monuments, at Little Munden and Bennington, both in the same county.
Matthew Ward  The tomb of 'The Butcher'? The Tiptoft monument in the presbytery of Ely Cathedral
The tomb traditionally identified as that of John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester (ex. 1470), located in the presbytery of Ely Cathedral, has hitherto received scant scholarly attention. The monument has been restored on several occasions, so much that it is difficult to ascertain which aspects of the tomb and canopy are original, or remain true to their original forms. It may also have been misidentified over the centuries. This essay offers the first detailed examination of the tomb and its historical background. It attempts to contextualise the various repairs undertaken, and also suggests the monuments may have been intended to commemorated Worcester's father, John Lord Tiptoft (d. 1443).
Michael Carter 'hys...days here lyven was' - The monument of Abbot Robert Chamber at Holm Cultram (Cumbria)
The most remarkable surviving monument of an English Cistercian abbot is that of Abbot Robert Chamber (1507-c.1530) at Holm Cultram Abbey (Cumbria, formerly Cumberland). It is preserved inside a modern vestry at the abbey and consists of three sides of a chest tomb, which are sculptured in low relief with images of mourning monks and the abbot. Unusually for the monument of a high-ranking cleric, the epitaph is in English. This article discusses the monument within the context of Cistercian commemorative practices and relates aspects of the tomb's iconography to the status of Abbot Chamber. Explanations for the use of English in the inscription are also discussed, as is the likely location of the monument.
Helen E. Lunnon 'I will have one porch of stone ... over my grave' - Medieval parish church porches and their function as tomb canopies.
The use of church porches as appropriate places for Christian burial is grounded in the early Church ruling prohibiting internal interments. Textural sources dating back to Bede's 'Ecclesiastical History' provides evidence  of the relation between porticus and decent burial, and the custom continued throughout the medieval period. This paper is primarily concerned with the adoption of this practice in the late medieval parish, with emphasis being placed on instances where porches were commissioned specifically as grave covers. Consequently, this paper explores the impact this function had on the architecture of porches built for this purpose, particularly in East Anglia, and identifies key characteristics of the building which demonstrate how they align with attributes of other types of medieval church monuments.
Sophie Oosterwijk The story of Bianca Rubea - An emblem of wifely devotion, or death by tomb slab.
A curious etching by the Dutch engraver Jan Luyken or his son Caspar has wrongly attracted the interest of vampyrologists. It actually illustrates the emblematic story of the virtuous 'Bianca Rubea', better known as Bianca de' Rossi or Bianca da Bassano, who chose to commit suicide by crushing herself to death underneath her late husband's tomb slab. Although the depicted scene is both anachronistic and implausible, it raises interesting questions about the custom of intramural burial beneath church floors, about the (re)positioning of the slabs or ledgerstones covering these graves, and about the use of pictorial sources as historical evidence.
Shorter Articles
Jerome Bertram The Cadavers of Tallinn
Cameron Newham The Turner monument in Therfield church (Hertfordshire)
Jon Bayliss A discovery at Salisbury Cathedral
James Stevens Curl Gaffin in Ireland: The Pottinger Memorial
Review Articles
Tanja Müller-Jonak Englische Grabdenkmäler des Mittelalters, 1250-1500 (Petersberg), Michael Imhof Verlag, 2010), 280 pp., 407 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-3-86568-602-2 HARRY TUMMERS
Robert Tittler Portraits, painters, and publics in provincial England 1540-1640 (Oxford, 2012), 202 pp., 26 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-0-19-958560-1 JEAN WILSON

Charles Alfred Stothard The Monumental Effigies of Great Britain: selected from our Cathedrals and Churches, for the purpose of bringing together, and preserving correct representations of the best historical illustrations extant, from the Normal Conquest to the reign of Henry the Eight (Godmanchester, Ken Trotman Publishing 2011) 112pp + index & advertisement, 144 plates. No ISBN  RICHARD KNOWLES
Book Reviews
John Crook English medieval shrines (Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 2011) xxiv + 342 pp., 54 b/w figs and plates. ISBN 9781843836827. SALLY BADHAM
Joel T. Rosenthal Margaret Paston's piety, The New Middle Ages (Basingstoke, Palgrave, Macmillan, 2010) xxi + 217 pp., 10 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-0-230-62207-4 ROBERT KINSEY
Marie-Hélène Rousseau Saving the souls of medieval London. Perpetual chantries at St Paul's Cathedral, c. 1200-1548 (Farnham, Ashgate, 2011) xiv + 242 pp., 3 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-1-4094-0581-8  NIGEL SAUL
Sophie Oosterwijk and Stefanie Knöll (eds) Mixed metaphors: the Danse Macabre in medieval and early modern Europe (Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011) xxiii + 449 pp., 116 b/w figs., 16 colour pls. ISBN 1-4438-2900-5  NICHOLAS ROGERS
Wolf de Weijert, Kim Ragetli, Arnoud-Jan Bijstervelt and Jeanette van Arenthals (eds) Living memoria: studies in medieval and early modern memorial culture in honour of Truus van Beuren (Hilversum, Verloren, 2011) 432 pp., many illustrations including 31 colour plates. ISBN 978-90-8704-272-1)  JEROME BERTRAM
Paul Binski and Elizabeth A. New (eds) Patrons and professionals in the Middle Ages, Harlaxton Medieval Studies, 22 (Donington, Shaun Tyas, 2012), xviii + 430 illustrations (mostly colour) ISBN 978-1-907730-12-2  SALLY BADHAM
Marilyn Yurdan, Oxfordshire graves and gravestones (Stroud, The History Press, 2010) 128 pp., 96 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-0-7524-5257-9
Peter Hill A History of death and burial in Northamptonshire (Stroud, Amberley, 2011) 160 pp., 46 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-1-4456-0462-6  OLIVER HARRIS
Paul Koudounaris The empire of Death: a cultural history of ossuaries and charnel houses (London, Thames & Hudson, 2011) 224 pps., 290 colour and 131 duotone plates. ISBN 978-0-500-251782  JULIAN LITTEN
Christine Reynolds (ed.) with an introduction by Richard Halsey Surveyors of the fabric of Westminster Abbey, 1827-1906: reports and letters. (Woodbridge, Boydell, 2011), xxv + 218 pps., ISBN 978-1-84383-6575  TIM TATTON-BROWN

Nigel Llewellyn The state of play: Reflections on the state of research into church monuments.
The Society's recent study day 'Renaissance monuments: recent research and new horizons for the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries', organised by Dr Adam White, encouraged reflections on the state of research in our field across all periods, not just the Renaissance. What follows is an edited version of some remarks offered quite informally to the audience at the beginning of the study day. In editing it for publication I have kept some of its informal quality. It is important to stress at the onset that my comments were intended not as complaints but as observations and were
 made in a collegial spirit and, in considerable part, to signal my unstinting admiration for the immense scholarly achievements of the Society over several decades. My main messages to the audience at the University of London Senate House were that I believe there is no single way to study church monuments, that our field should not stand still, and that it is always rewarding for scholars to rise to new challenges, even when they seem risky.
Anna Bergman and Ilona Hans-Collas Awaiting eternal life: Painted burial cists in the Southern Netherlands
A phenomenon that we find in the region once known as the Southern Netherlands is the medieval painted burial cist. This type of tomb was produced between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries but most examples date from the fourteenth and fifteenth. Displaying a range of characteristics and motifs in vivid colours, the walls of these tombs may startle the modern viewer. Many such graves have been discovered to date, but they remain largely unknown and their conservation is a cause for great concern. This article investigates the history, spread, imagery and craftsmanship of these unusual tombs. It also serves to make the readership of this journal acquainted with this unique type of tomb on which so little has been written in English. Many questions, however, remain unanswerable.
Sally Badham and Philip J. Lankester The Daubeney monuments at Brant Broughton (Lincolnshire)
The Daubeney family held manors in Brant Broughton (Lincolnshire) from at least the second quarter of the thirteenth century to the mid-fourteenth century. During this time at least four monuments were laid down to various family members but all that can now be identified with certainty as belonging to them is a 'tomb chest' made up from elements of two original tombs. Antiquarian notes and drawings enable the appearance of several monuments to be reconstructed and an attempt is made to date the monuments and identify the individual family members commemorated.
Sophie Oosterwijk Death or resurrection? The iconography of two sixteenth-century incised slabs in Oudelande (Zeeland) and other Netherlandish shroud effigies
A pair of incised effigial slabs dating from the first quarter of the sixteenth century in the parish church of Oudelande in the coastal province of Zeeland (Netherlands) depict a husband and wife, each in their own coffin. While the wife appears to be wrapped in a very elegant sleeved shroud the husband seems to be wear male civilian dress, at least at first sight: comparisons with shroud memorials elsewhere suggest the Oudelande couple may both be presented in sleeved shrouds. Of particular interest is a cluster of late-medieval shroud slabs of different styles in nearby Kapelle. Other comparable examples can be found elsewhere in the Netherlands, all of them Flemish imports. Analysis of these shroud memorials is used here to address still commonly held assumptions about the appearance, definition and meaning of so-called transi or cadaver figures.
Jon Bayliss The monument of William, Lord Parr, at Horton (Northamptonshire)
It is distinctly possible that the church at Horton will be sold complete with the funeral monuments located in its chancel; covenants that currently protect them will not be enforceable after a subsequent sale. These monuments include one of national importance, that of Queen Katherine's Parr's uncle, William, Lord Parr. This is described and its likely appropriation during the religious upheavals of the mid-sixteenth century discussed.
Andrew C. Skelton 'The best work of my life' Wilfrid Scawen Blunt's effigy of Francis Scawen Blunt in the church of St Francis and St Anthony (RC), Crawley (West Sussex)
The alabaster effigy of Francis Scawen Blunt (2839-72) in the Friary church of St Francis and St Anthony (RC), Crawley (West Sussex) is virtually unknown except to those who have an interest in its creator, the poet and political activist Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922), younger brother of the deceased. Using the diary of Wilfrid Blunt's wife Lady Annabella (1837-1917, known in the Blunt family as Anne), daughter of the first earl of Lovelace and granddaughter of Lord Byron, and other documentary evidence, this paper attempts to provide a clearer chronology for the creation of the monument and its subsequent history.
Sir Tony Baldry War memorials and monuments: A centenary approach
The centenary of the beginning of the Great War has been the stimulus for an increased awareness of war memorials and associated material, at both local community and national government levels. This article is intended to focus the attention of members of the Church Monuments Society on these artefacts, as although they are indeed monumental, and frequently within churches, their ubiquity and mass commemorative function have served to render them simply part of the general church cape and landscape. A deeper appreciation of the poignant circumstances in which these memorials were commissioned is overdue therefore; the chief function of the War Memorial Trust in maintaining their relevance in the twenty-first century is also discussed.
Shorter Articles
Oliver D. Harris Beards: true or false
This note draws attention to several instances in which early modern antiquaries mistakenly recorded medieval tomb effigies and figures in glass as wearing beards, and suggests that they were deceived by their lack of familiarity with historic fashions. It places their error in a broader context of perception being shaped by cultural assumptions.
Jon Bayliss Epiphanius Evesham. A 'new' discovery
Although the signature of Epiphanius Evesham on a monument at Scarning (Norfolk) appeared in print in the nineteenth century, it passed unnoticed in the publicity surrounding Evesham's name and attributions in the 1930's. The monument commemorates an infant, Edward Games, who died the same day he was born. The unclothed figure of the infant is most unusual and is considered in the context of two other contemporary memorials with such figures. What little is known of the infant's parents is also set out.
Review Article
Michael Penman (ed.), Monuments and monumentality across medieval and early modern Europe (Donnington, Shaun Tyas, 2012), xxii + 298 pp., 3 maps, 131 colour and b/w photos. ISBN 9781907730283. Hardback.
Book Reviews
Carl Watkins, The undiscovered country: journeys among the dead (London, The Bodley Head, 2013) 318 pp., 3 maps, 11 illustrations (8 colour, 3 b/w) ISBN 9781847921406. Hardback
Julian M. Luxford and John McNeill (eds), The medieval chantry in England (Leeds, Maney Publishing for the British Archaeological Association, 2011), ix + 313 pp., 131 b/w and colour illustrations. ISBN 9781907975165 Hardback
Charlotte A. Stanford, Commemorating the dead in late medieval Strasbourg. The cathedral's Book of Donors and its use (1320-1521), Church Faith and Culture in the Medieval West (Farnham, Ashgate, 2011) 348 pp., 37 b/w illustrations. ISBN 9781409401360
Gale R. Owen-Crocker, Elizabeth Coatsworth and Maria Hayward (eds), Encyclopaedia of dress and textiles in the British Isles c. 450-1450 (Leiden and Boston, Brill, 2012), 692 pp., 36 colour plates + 101 b/w figures. ISBN 9789004124356 Hardback
Karl-Heinz Spieß and Immo Warntjes (eds), Death at court (Weisbaden, Harrassowitz Verlag, 2012) 349 pp., 16 b/w illustrations. ISBN 9783447067607 Hardback
Jon Cannon and Beth Williamson (eds), The medieval art, architecture and history of Bristol Cathedral. An enigma explored. Bristol Studies in Medieval Cultures (Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 2011), 350 pp, 11 colour plates and many b/w illustrations. ISBN 9781843836803 Hardback
Stephen Hart, Medieval church window tracery in England (Woodbridge, Boydell, 2012), 184 pp, 16 pages of plates (some colour). ISBN 9781843837602. Paperback
Roger Rosewell, Stained glass (Oxford, Shire, 2012), 88 pp, several colour plates. ISBN 9780747811473. Paperback
Chris King and Duncan Sayers (eds), The archaeology of post-medieval religion (Woodbridge, Boydell, 2011) xiii + 288 pp, 62 illustrations. ISBN 9781843836933 Hardback
Jerome Bertram, Bishops and burgers, dukes and knights, a lecture delivered to the Society of Antiquaries of London on 6 October 2011 (Lulu, 2011) 40 pp, 12 b&w illustrations, 81 colour plates. Paperback
Paul Cockerham, ' "My body to be buried in my owne monument" the social and religious context of Cc. Kilkenny funeral monuments, 1600-2700' in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 109C (2009) pp, 239-365
David J Stewart, The sea their graves: an archaeology of death and remembrance in maritime culture (Florida, University Press of Florida, 2011), 262 pp., 50 b&w illustrations. ISBN 9780813033739. Hardback
James Stevens Curl, Funerary monuments & memorials in St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh (Whitstable, Historical Publications Ltd, 2013) xxviii + 132 pp., 62 colour and 28 b/w illustrations. ISBN 9781905286492 (Hardback limited edition of 250 copies); ISBN 9781905286485 (Paperback standard edition). Available from the author at 15 Torgrange, Holywood, Co. Down, BT18 0NG or via
Richard Wheeler, Oxfordshire's best churches (King's Sutton, Fircone Books Ltd, 2013) ix + 270 pp., 340 colour photos, 1 map and 15 church plans. ISBN 9781907700002 Hardback
Sally Badham and Paul Cockerham (eds), 'The beste and fayrest of al Lincolnshire'. The church of St Botolph, Boston, Lincolnshire, and its medieval monuments (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2012) ISBN 9781407309330 Paperback
Sarah Tarlow, Ritual, belief and the dead in early modern Britain and Ireland (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011), xii + 226 pp., 34 illustrations. ISBN 9780521761543
Dr John Frederick Physick CBE DrRCA DLitt FSA

  Nigel Saul The sculptor of the monument of a serjeant-at-law at Flamstead (Hertfordshire): a sequel
A sculptor based at the Totternhoe quarries in Bedfordshire in the early fifteenth century has been recenly identified as reponsible for a group of monuments in Hertfordshire, at Flamstead (c. 1408), Benington (c.1435) and Little Munden (c.1440). In this article three more by the same sculptor are identified, all of them in churches further north, at Marholm (Cambridgeshire, formerly Northamptonshire), Brough Green and Isleham (both Cambridgeshire). The monuments date from a period roughly mid-way between the earliest and the latest in the Hertfordshire series, suggesting that in the interveniong twenty years the sculptor had been drawn northwards in search of work.
Jean L Wilson The Cotton Monuments at Landwade
The monuments in the church at Landwade (Cambridgeshire), of the Cotton family of Landwade and Madingley, form a continuous sequence from the mid-fifteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries, when the male line became extinct. Later generations showed an attachment to the past: it seems possible, with the identification of the four earliest monuments to the family, that as early as the early sixteenth century the Cottons were displaying both a celebration and a glamourisation of their ancestry.
Oliver D. Harris The generations of Adam: the monument of Sir Gawen Carew in Exeter Cathedral.
The grandiose tomb of Sir Gawen Carew (d. 1584) and his wife in Exeter Cathedral stands as a remarkable statement of genealogical and dynastic identity. This paper examines the background to its erection and considers the part played by John Hooker, chamberlain and coroner of Exeter, in its design. It establishes that the lady commemorated was Elizabeth née Norwich (d. 1594), Sir Gawen's third wife and the monument's patron, and argues that the unusual third effigy was intended to represent Adam Mongomery de Carew, the family's legendary progenitor.
T. P. Connor 'A Standinge Tombe Of Stone'. Early modern chest tombs in the churchyards of west Dorset and south Somerset.
Chest tombs survive in large numbers in several parts of England, but have received little attention as a discrete form of funeral monument. This study, based on an area of about two hundred contiguous parishes, examines the forms of these structures during the period c. 1570 - 1714 and, from a detailed study of a substantial number of those commemorated by their tombs, attempts to place them in a social context.
David Wilson (with an appendix by Sally Badham) The Arches Court, Wootton St Lawrence and church monuments.
The recent decision by an ecclesiastical appeal court to set aside a faculty permitting the sale of an armet (made c.1500), being an accoutrement of a funerary monument for several centuries, has been hailed as a victory for all those concerned with preserving funerary monuments intact at the church where they are located. The case, however, proceeded as one where the armet was owned by the church, whereas title in most monuments and their accoutrements vests in the heir-in-law of the person commemorated by the monument. This article analyses and explains the decision of the court, and seeks to identify how the principles it established may have general application to all petitions for faculties concerning church monuments, irrespective of their ownership.
Review Articles
Peter Bitter, Viera Bonenkampovi and Koen Goudriaan (eds), Graven spreken. Perspectieven op grafcultuur in de middeleeuwse en vroegmoderne Nederlanden (Hilversum: Verloren, 2013), 256 pp., 21 b/w illus. and 20 colour plates. ISBN: 9-789087-043209. (paperback).
Dennis Wardleworth, William Reid Dick, sculptor (Farnham, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2013), 215 pp., 49 black and white iluus. ISBN: 978-1-4094-3971-4 (hardback)
Book Reviews
Richard Marks, Studies in the art and imigery of the Middle Ages (London, The Pindar Press, 2012), viii + 845 pp., 465 b/w illus. ISBN: 978-1-904597-38-4. (hardback)

Roger Rosewell, Medieval wall paintings (Oxford, Shire 2014), 96 pp., 90 colour plates. ISBN: 978-0-74781-293-7 (softback)
Adrian J. Webb (ed), Ancient church fonts of Somerset surveyed and drawn by Harry Pridham (Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, 2013), xl + 192 pp., many colour and b/w illus. ISBN: 978-0-902152-25-0. (hardback)
C. B. Newham. Book of effigies: photographs of selected recumbent effigies in English parish churches (DAE Publishing, 2013), 88 pp., 81 colour plates. ISBN: 978-1-906265-20-5. (softback)
C. B. Newham. Book of effigies II: photographs of selected recumbent effigies in English parish churches (DAE Publishing, 2014), 104 pp.,100 colour plates. ISBN: 978-1-906265-21-5. (softback)
Elma Brenner, Meredith Cohen and Mary Franklin Brown (eds), Memory and commemoration in medieval culture (Franham, Ashgate, 2013), 345 pp., 59 b/w illus. ISBN: 978-1-4094-2394-5 (hardback)
Cinzia M. Sicca and Louis A. Waldman (eds), The Anglo-Florentine Renaissance: art for the early Tudors (New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 2012), 414 pp., 147 colour and b/w illus. ISBN: 978-0-300-17608-7 (hardback)
Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist (eds), The arts of rememberance in Early Modern England. Memorial cultures of the Post Reformation (Farnham, Ashgate, 2013), 29 pp., 23 b/w illus. ISBN: 978-1-4094-4657-6 (hardback)
Elizabeth C Tingle, Purgatory and piety in Brittany 1480-1720 (Farnham, Ashgate, 2012), xvi + 308 pp., 9 figures and daigrams and 6 tables. ISBN: 9-781409-438236 (hardback)
Maureen Daly Goggin and Beth Fowkes (eds), Women and the material culture of death (Farnham, Ashgate, 2013), xxii + 344 pp., bibliography and index, 77 b/w plates. ISBN: 978-1-4094-4416-9 (hardback)
Edward Chaney and Timothy Wilks, The Jacobean Grand Tour. Early Stuart travellers in Europe. (London and New York, I. B. Tauris & Co., 2014), 304 pp., 11 colour plates, 107 b/w illus. ISBN: 978-1-78076-783-8. (hardback)
Suzanne Glover Linsay, Funerary arts and tomb cult. Living with the dead in France, 1750-1850 (Farnham, Ashgate, 2012), xxii + 254 pp., 40 black and white illustrations. ISBN: 978-1-4094-2261-7 (hardback)
Paul Koudounaris, Heavenly bodies. Cult treasures and spectacular saints from the catacombs (London, Thames & Hudson, 2013) 184 pp. + index, 90 colour and 15 b/w illus. IBSN: 978-0-500-25-1959. (hardback)
Alexandra Stara, The Museum of French Monuments 1795-1816: 'Killing art to make history' (Farnham, Ashgate, 2013), xiii + 183 pp., 38 black and white illus. ISBN: 978-1-4094-3799-4 (hardback)
Nicholas Stanley-Price, The Non-Catholic cemetery in Rome: its history, its people, and its survival for 300 years. (Rome, The Non-Catholic Cemetery in Rome, 2014), 156 pp., 5 maps and 85 colour and b/w illus. ISBN: 978-88-909168-0-9 (paperback)
Robert Halliday, Suffolk graves. A history of Suffolk gravestones (Bury St Edmunds, Arima Publishing, 2013) , 113 pp., 234 b/w illus.. ISBN: 978-1-84549-595-4. (paperback)
Robert Halliday, Suffolk graves. Graves of the famous and notable  (Bury St Edmunds, Arima Publishing, 2013) , 100 pp., 144 b/w illus.. ISBN: 978-1-84549-602-9. (paperback)
Jim Dyson, Dead famous London (London, Bluecoat Press, 2013), 176 pp., colour illus. throughout. ISBN: 978-1908-45718-9 (paperback)
Kate Tiller, Remembrance and community. War memorials and local history (Ashbourne, The British Association for Local History, 2013). 56 pp. + 47 illus. mostly in colour. ISBN: 978-0-948-140-01-3. (paperback)
Gwendolyn Leick, Tombs of the great leaders: a contemporary guide (London, Reaktion, 2013), 320 pp., 8 colour and 125 b/w illus. ISBN: 978-1-78023-200-3. (hardback)
Matthew Byrne, Beautiful churches saved by the Churches Conservation Trust (London, Francis Lincoln, 2013), 176 pp., 250 colour illus. throughout. ISBN: 978-0-7112-3453-6 (hardback)
Markus Sanke, Die Gräber geistlicher Eliten Europas von der Spätantike bis zur Neuzeit: Archäologische Studien zur materiellen Reflexion von Jenseitsvorstellungen und ihrem Wandel, 2 vols + CD-ROM (Bonn, Habelt, 2012), 1104 pp., 219 colour and 431 b/w illus. ISBN: 978-3-7749-3685-0 (hardback)
Ulrika Wenland and Elisabeth Rüber-Schütte (eds), Die Merseburger Fürstengruft: Geschichte - Zeremoniell - Fürstengruft (Petersberg, Michael Imhof, 2013), 608 pp., 434 colour illus. ISBN: 978-3-86568-892-7. (hardback)
Rainer Berndt (ed),  Wider das Vergessen und für das Seelenheil: Memoria und Totengedenken im Mittelalter (Münster, Aschendorff, 2013), 384 pp., 32 colour plates. ISBN: 978-3-402-10436-1. (hardback)
Sarah Tarlow and Liv Nilsson Stutz (eds), The Oxford handbook of the archaeology of  death and burial. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013), 849 pp., 115 line & black and white figures. ISBN: 978-0-19-956906-9. (hardback)